Developed societies, although having successfully reduced the burden of infectious disease, constitute an environment where metabolic, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases thrive. Living in westernized countries has not fundamentally changed the genetic basis on which these diseases emerge, but has strong impact on lifestyle and pathogen exposure. In particular, nutritional patterns collectively termed the “Western diet”, including high-fat and cholesterol, high-protein, high-sugar, and excess salt intake, as well as frequent consumption of processed and ‘fast foods’, promote obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. These factors have also gained high interest as possible promoters of autoimmune diseases. Underlying metabolic and immunologic mechanisms are currently being intensively explored. This review discusses the current knowledge relative to the association of “Western diet” with autoimmunity, and highlights the role of T cells as central players linking dietary influences to autoimmune pathology.
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This work was supported by a National MS Society Collaborative Research Center Award CA1061-A-18, National Institutes of Health Grants P01 AI045757, U19 AI046130, U19 AI070352, and P01 AI039671, and by a Jacob Javits Merit award (NS2427) from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the Penates Foundation and the Nancy Taylor Foundation for Chronic Diseases, Inc. (to David A. Hafler) and by National Institutes of Health Grants P30-ES002109 and U01 CA164337 (to Susan E. Erdman).
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Arndt Manzel, Dominik N. Muller, David A. Hafler, Susan E. Erdman, Ralf A. Linker, and Markus Kleinewietfeld declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Autoimmunity
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Manzel, A., Muller, D.N., Hafler, D.A. et al. Role of “Western Diet” in Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 14, 404 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11882-013-0404-6
- Western diet
- Autoimmune diseases
- Gut microbiome
- T cell regulation