The achievement of 1,075 school children was followed to the end of grade 7 or 8. Retrospective details of birth, medical history, and infant adaptive behavior, as well as current information about preschool behavior, were provided by parents before kindergarten entry when their children were ages four to five. At that time, each child was given language, preacademic, and visual-motor tests, and a short-form verbal IQ was obtained. For grades 1 to 8, a mean 6.9 percent qualified as low in arithmetic (including 3.9 percent low only in arithmetic) and 9 percent as low in reading (including 6 percent low only in reading). Groups of children with persistent disability in arithmetic only (2.3 percent), reading only (6.6 percent), and arithmetic plus reading (3.4 percent) were compared on all variables, and gender differences were examined. The specific arithmetic group was superior to the other two groups in preschool verbal IQ and language, and had suffered more birth problems and illness. As found by Rourke and his colleagues (e.g., Rourke and Finlayson 1978) for older children, boys with a specific arithmetic disability showed a preschool profile with high verbal scores and low nonverbal scores. Many gender differences were found for the total sample, but few for the learning disability subgroups.
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Badian, N.A. Persistent arithmetic, reading, or arithmetic and reading disability. Ann. of Dyslexia 49, 43–70 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-999-0019-8