The goal of this study was to examine the post-treatment development of word and pseudoword accuracy and fluency and its cognitive and linguistic predictors in Dutch children with dyslexia compared with typical readers in the upper primary grades. Word and pseudoword reading accuracy and fluency were assessed at the start and end of grade 5 and at the end of grade 6. Phonological awareness, rapid naming, verbal short-term memory, vocabulary, and visual attention span were assessed at the start of grade 5. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that children with dyslexia were less accurate than typical readers and showed very little improvements in accuracy over time. They were also less fluent and showed less growth in reading fluency than typical readers. The children with dyslexia did improve more in word reading fluency than in pseudoword reading fluency over time. Visual attention span and phonological awareness predicted reading accuracy development in typical readers, while rapid naming predicted individual differences in reading fluency in children with dyslexia. It can be concluded that in the upper grades, children with dyslexia not only struggled with fluent reading, but they also still struggled with accurate reading in a relatively transparent orthography like Dutch, even after they had received a reading intervention to remediate their reading difficulties.
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van der Kleij, S., Segers, E., Groen, M. et al. Post-treatment reading development in children with dyslexia: the challenge remains. Ann. of Dyslexia 69, 279–296 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-019-00186-6
- Reading development