Advertisement

Music-related abilities among readers with dyslexia

  • Adi Lifshitz-Ben-BasatEmail author
  • Leah Fostick
Article

Abstract

Research suggests that a central difficulty in dyslexia may be impaired rapid temporal processing. Good temporal processing is also needed for musical perception, which relies on the ability to detect rapid changes. Our study is the first to measure the perception of adults with and without dyslexia on all three dimensions of music (rhythm, pitch, and spectrum), as well as their capacity for auditory imagery and detection of slow changes, while controlling for working memory. Participants were undergraduate students, aged 20–35 years: 26 readers with dyslexia and 30 typical readers. Participants completed a battery of tests measuring aptitude for recognizing the similarity/difference in tone pitch or rhythm, spectral resolution, vividness/control of auditory imagination, the ability to detect slow changes in auditory stimuli, and working memory. As expected, readers with dyslexia showed poorer performance in pitch and rhythm than controls, but outperformed them in spectral perception. The data for each test was analyzed separately while controlling for the letter-number sequencing score. No differences between groups were found in slow-change detection or auditory imagery. Our results demonstrated that rapid temporal processing appears to be the main difficulty of readers with dyslexia, who demonstrated poorer performance when stimuli were presented quickly rather than slowly and better performance on a task when no temporal component was involved. These findings underscore the need for further study of temporal processing in readers with dyslexia. Remediation of temporal processing deficits may unmask the preserved or even superior abilities of people with dyslexia, leading to enhanced ability in all areas that utilize the temporal component.

Keywords

Dyslexia Dyslexia and music Pitch perception Speech perception 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Shira Chana Bienstock for her thorough editorial review of this manuscript.

References

  1. Ahissar, M. (2007). Dyslexia and the anchoring-deficit hypothesis. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(11), 458–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahissar, M., Protopapas, A., Reid, M., & Merzenich, M. M. (2000). Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(12), 6832–6837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander, J. D., & Nygaard, L. C. (2008). Reading voices and hearing text: Talker-specific auditory imagery in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34(2), 446–459.Google Scholar
  4. Anvari, S. H., Trainor, L. J., Woodside, J., & Levy, B. A. (2002). Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83(2), 111–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronoff, J. M., & Landsberger, D. M. (2013). The development of a modified spectral ripple test. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134(2), EL217–EL222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atterbury, B. W. (1985). A comparison of rhythm pattern perception and performance in normal and learning disabled readers, aged seven and eight. Journal of Research in Music Education, 31, 259–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayotte, J., Peretz, I., & Hyde, K. (2002). Congenital amusia: A group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder. Brain, 125(2), 238–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baddeley, A. D., & Andrade, J. (2000). Working memory and the vividness of imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(1), 126–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baldeweg, T., Richardson, A., Watkins, S., Foale, C., & Gruzelier, J. (1999). Impaired auditory frequency discrimination in dyslexia detected with mismatch evoked potentials. Annals of Neurology, 45(4), 495–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Banai, K., & Ahissar, M. (2004). Poor frequency discrimination probes dyslexics with particularly impaired working memory. Audiology and Neuro-Otology, 9(6), 328–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Banai, K., & Ahissar, M. (2010). On the importance of anchoring and the consequences of its impairment in dyslexia. Dyslexia, 16(3), 240–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barwick, J., Valentine, E., West, R., & Wilding, J. (1989). Relations between reading and musical abilities. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 59(2), 253–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beaman, C. P. (2018). The literary and recent scientific history of the earworm: A review and theoretical framework. Auditory Perception & Cognition, 1(1–2), 42–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beaman, C. P., Powell, K., & Rapley, E. (2015). Want to block earworms from conscious awareness? B(u) y gum. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 1049–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beaulieu, C., Plewes, C., Paulson, L. A., Roy, D., Snook, L., Concha, L., & Phillips, L. (2005). Imaging brain connectivity in children with diverse reading ability. Neuroimage, 25(4), 1266–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ben-Artzi, E., Fostick, L., & Babkoff, H. (2005). Deficits in temporal-order judgments in dyslexia: Evidence from diotic stimuli differing spectrally and from dichotic stimuli differing only by perceived location. Neuropsychologia, 43(5), 714–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benton, A. L., & Pearl, D. (Eds.). (1978). Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. Oxford: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  18. Berent, I., Vaknin-Nusbaum, V., Balaban, E., & Galaburda, A. M. (2013). Phonological generalizations in dyslexia: The phonological grammar may not be impaired. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 30(5), 285–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunyé, T. T., Ditman, T., Mahoney, C. R., Walters, E. K., & Taylor, H. A. (2010). You heard it here first: Readers mentally simulate described sounds. Acta Psychologica, 135(2), 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deutsch, G. K., Dougherty, R. F., Bammer, R., Siok, W. T., Gabrieli, J. D., & Wandell, B. (2005). Children’s reading performance is correlated with white matter structure measured by diffusion tensor imaging. Cortex, 41(3), 354–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dole, M., Meunier, F., & Hoen, M. (2014). Functional correlates of the speech-in-noise perception impairment in dyslexia: An MRI study. Neuropsychologia, 60, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Douglas, S., & Willatts, P. (1994). The relationship between musical ability and literacy skills. Journal of Research in Reading, 17(2), 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Drennan, W. R., Anderson, E. S., Won, J. H., & Rubinstein, J. T. (2014). Validation of a clinical assessment of spectral ripple resolution for cochlear-implant. Ear and Hearing, 35(3), e92–e98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Emery, L., Myerson, J., & Hale, S. (2007). Age differences in item manipulation span: The case of letter-number sequencing. Psychology and Aging, 22(1), 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Farmer, M. E., & Klein, R. M. (1995). The evidence for a temporal processing deficit linked to dyslexia: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2(4), 460–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fawcett, A., & Nicolson, R. (1996). The dyslexia screening test. London: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  27. Fenn, K. M., Shintel, H., Atkins, A. S., Skipper, J. I., Bond, V. C., & Nusbaum, H. C. (2011). When less is heard than meets the ear: Change deafness in a telephone conversation. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(7), 1442–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fisher, C., Chekaluk, E., & Irwin, J. (2015). Impaired driving performance as evidence of a magnocellular deficit in dyslexia and visual stress. Dyslexia, 21(4), 350–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Flaugnacco, E., Lopez, L., Terribili, C., Montico, M., Zoia, S., & Schön, D. (2015). Music training increases phonological awareness and reading skills in developmental dyslexia: A randomized control trial. PLoS One, 10(9), e0138715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flaugnacco, E., Lopez, L., Terribili, C., Zoia, S., Buda, S., Tilli, S., et al. (2014). Rhythm perception and production predict reading abilities in developmental dyslexia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Forgeard, M., Schlaug, G., Norton, A., Rosam, C., Iyengar, U., & Winner, E. (2008). The relation between music and phonological processing in normal-reading children and children with dyslexia. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25(4), 383–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fostick, L., Bar-El, S., & Ram-Tsur, R. (2012a). Auditory temporal processing as a specific deficit among dyslexic readers. Psychology Research, 2(2), 77–88.Google Scholar
  33. Fostick, L., Bar-El, S., & Ram-Tsur, R. (2012b). Auditory temporal processing and working memory: Two independent deficits for dyslexia. Psychology Research, 2(5), 308–318.Google Scholar
  34. Fostick, L., Eshcoli, R., Shtibelman, H., Nechemya, R., & Levi, H. (2014). The efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic students. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(5), 1799–1807.Google Scholar
  35. Foxton, J. M., Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., Brace, H., McIntyre, F., & Griffiths, T. D. (2003). Reading skills are related to global, but not local, acoustic pattern perception. Nature Neuroscience, 6(4), 343–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fraga González, G., Žarić, G., Tijms, J., Bonte, M., Blomert, L., & van der Molen, M. W. (2015). A randomized controlled trial on the beneficial effects of training letter-speech sound integration on reading fluency in children with dyslexia. PLoS One, 10(12), e0143914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaab, N., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Deutsch, G. K., Tallal, P., & Temple, E. (2007). Neural correlates of rapid auditory processing are disrupted in children with developmental dyslexia and ameliorated with training: An fMRI study. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 25(3–4), 295–310.Google Scholar
  38. Garcia, R. B., Mammarella, I. C., Tripodi, D., & Cornoldi, C. (2014). Visuospatial working memory for locations, colours, and binding in typically developing children and in children with dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(1), 17–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gathercole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1990). Phonological memory deficits in language disordered children: Is there a causal connection? Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 336–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2000). Working memory deficits in children with low achievements in the national curriculum at 7 years of age. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(Pt 2), 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gathercole, S. E., Tiffany, C., Briscoe, J., & Thorn, A. (2005). Developmental consequences of poor phonological short-term memory function in childhood: A longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(6), 598–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gordon, E. E. (1989). Manual for the advanced measures of music audiation. Chicago, IL: G.I.A. Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  43. Gori, S., Mascheretti, S., Giora, E., Ronconi, L., Ruffino, M., Quadrelli, E., & Marino, C. (2015). The DCDC2 intron 2 deletion impairs illusory motion perception unveiling the selective role of magnocellular-dorsal stream in reading (dis)ability. Cerebral Cortex, 25(6), 1685–1695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goswami, U., Huss, M., Mead, N., Fosker, T., & Verney, J. P. (2013). Perception of patterns of musical beat distribution in phonological developmental dyslexia: Significant longitudinal relations with word reading and reading comprehension. Cortex, 49(5), 1363–1376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gregg, M. K., & Samuel, A. G. (2008). Change deafness and the organizational properties of sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34(4), 974.Google Scholar
  46. Halpern, A. R. (2012). Dynamic aspects of musical imagery. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252(1), 200–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Halpern, A. R., & Zatorre, R. J. (1999). When that tune runs through your head: A PET investigation of auditory imagery for familiar melodies. Cerebral Cortex, 9(7), 697–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Halpern, A. R., Zatorre, R. J., Bouffard, M., & Johnson, J. A. (2004). Behavioral and neural correlates of perceived and imagined musical timbre. Neuropsychologia, 42(9), 1281–1292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harris, A. J., & Sipay, S. R. (1990). How to improve reading ability. White Plains, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  50. Hazan, V., Messaoud-Galusi, S., Rosen, S., Nouwens, S., & Shakespeare, B. (2009). Speech perception abilities of adults with dyslexia: Is there any evidence for a true deficit? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52(6), 1510–1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Heim, H., Freeman, R. B., Eulitz, C., & Elbert, T. (2001). Auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia is associated with enhanced sensitivity in the visual modality. Neuroreport for Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research, 2, 507–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Herholz, S. C., Halpern, A. R., & Zatorre, R. J. (2012). Neuronal correlates of perception, imagery, and memory for familiar tunes. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(6), 1382–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoeft, F., Meyler, A., Hernandez, A., Juel, C., Taylor-Hill, H., Martindale, J. L., et al. (2007). Functional and morphometric brain dissociation between dyslexia and reading ability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(10), 4234–4239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hubbard, T. L. (2010). Auditory imagery: Empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 302–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Huss, M., Verney, J. P., Fosker, T., Mead, N., & Goswami, U. (2011). Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: Perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology. Cortex, 47(6), 674–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones, J. L., Lucker, J., Zalewski, C., Brewer, C., & Drayna, D. (2009). Phonological processing in adults with deficits in musical pitch recognition. Journal of Communication Disorders, 42(3), 226–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kasirer, A., & Mashal, N. (2017). Comprehension and generation of metaphoric language in children, adolescents, and adults with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 23(2), 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Keen, A. G., & Lovegrove, W. J. (2000). Transient deficit hypothesis and dyslexia: Examination of whole-part relationship, retinal sensitivity, and spatial temporal frequencies. Vision Research, 40, 705–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kraemer, D. J., Macrae, C. N., Green, A. E., & Kelley, W. M. (2005). Musical imagery: Sound of silence activates auditory cortex. Nature, 434(7030), 158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kurby, C. A., Magliano, J. P., & Rapp, D. N. (2009). Those voices in your head: Activation of auditory images during reading. Cognition, 112(3), 457–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Laasonen, M., Leppämäki, S., Tani, P., & Hokkanen, L. (2009). Adult dyslexia and attention deficit disorder in Finland—Project DyAdd: WAIS-III cognitive profiles. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(6), 511–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lamb, S. J., & Gregory, A. H. (1993). The relationship between music and reading in beginning readers. Educational Psychology, 13(1), 19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leaver, A. M., Van Lare, J., Zielinski, B., Halpern, A. R., & Rauschecker, J. P. (2009). Brain activation during anticipation of sound sequences. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(8), 2477–2485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lee, H. Y., Sie, Y. S., Chen, S. C., & Cheng, M. C. (2015). The music perception performance of children with and without dyslexia in Taiwan. Psychological Reports, 116(1), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leong, V., & Goswami, U. (2014). Assessment of rhythmic entrainment at multiple timescales in dyslexia: Evidence for disruption to syllable timing. Hearing Research, 308, 141–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lohvansuu, K., Hämäläinen, J. A., Tanskanen, A., Ervast, L., Heikkinen, E., Lyytinen, H., & Leppänen, P. H. (2014). Enhancement of brain event-related potentials to speech sounds is associated with compensated reading skills in dyslexic children with familial risk for dyslexia. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 94(3), 298–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lovegrove, W. J., Bowling, A., Badcock, D., & Blackwood, M. (1980). Specific reading disability: Differences in contrast sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency. Science, 210(4468), 439–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mayringer, H., & Wimmer, H. (2000). Pseudoname learning by German-speaking children with dyslexia: Evidence for a phonological learning deficit. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 75(2), 116–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Messaoud-Galusi, S., Hazan, V., & Rosen, S. (2011). Investigating speech perception in children with dyslexia: Is there evidence of a consistent deficit in individuals? Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 54(6), 1682–1701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meyler, A., & Breznitz, Z. (2005). Visual, auditory and cross-modal processing of linguistic and nonlinguistic temporal patterns among adult dyslexic readers. Dyslexia, 11, 93–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mody, M., Studdert-Kennedy, M., & Brady, S. (1997). Speech perception deficits in poor readers: Auditory processing or phonological coding? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 64(2), 199–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Neuhoff, J. G., Schott, S. A., Kropf, A. J., & Neuhoff, E. M. (2014). Familiarity, expertise, and change detection: Change deafness is worse in your native language. Perception, 43(2–3), 219–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Neuhoff, J. G., Wayand, J., Ndiaye, M. C., Berkow, A. B., Bertacchi, B. R., & Benton, C. A. (2015). Slow change deafness. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77(4), 1189–1199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nicolson, R. I., & Fawcett, A. J. (1990). Automaticity: A new framework for dyslexia research? Cognition, 35(2), 159–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory and dyslexia. Report LRG, 3, 91.Google Scholar
  76. Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., & Dean, P. (2001). Developmental dyslexia: The cerebellar deficit hypothesis. Trends in Neurosciences, 24(9), 508–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Noordenbos, M. W., Segers, E., Serniclaes, W., Mitterer, H., & Verhoeven, L. (2012). Neural evidence of allophonic perception in children at risk for dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 50(8), 2010–2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Noordenbos, M. W., Segers, E., Serniclaes, W., & Verhoeven, L. (2013). Neural evidence of the allophonic mode of speech perception in adults with dyslexia. Clinical Neurophysiology, 124(6), 1151–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Oganian, Y., & Ahissar, M. (2012). Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills. Neuropsychologia, 50(8), 1895–1905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ortiz, R., Estévez, A., Muñetón, M., & Domínguez, C. (2014). Visual and auditory perception in preschool children at risk for dyslexia. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(11), 2673–2680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Overy, K. (2003). Dyslexia and music. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999(1), 497–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Overy, K., Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., & Clarke, E. F. (2003). Dyslexia and music: Measuring musical timing skills. Dyslexia, 9(1), 18–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pfordresher, P. Q., & Halpern, A. R. (2013). Auditory imagery and the poor-pitch singer. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(4), 747–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reed, M. A. (1989). Speech perception and the discrimination of brief auditory cues in reading disabled children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 48, 270–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rensink, R. A. (2002). Change detection. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 245–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rensink, R. A., O'Regan, J. K., & Clark, J. J. (1997). To see or not to see: The need for attention to perceive changes in scenes. Psychological Science, 8(5), 368–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ronen, M., Lifshitz-Ben-Basat, A., Taitelbaum-Swead, R., & Fostick, L. (2018). Auditory temporal processing, reading, and phonological awareness among aging adults. Acta Psychologica, 190, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Santos, A., Joly-Pottuz, B., Moreno, S., Habib, M., & Besson, M. (2007). Behavioural and event-related potentials evidence for pitch discrimination deficits in dyslexic children: Improvement after intensive phonic intervention. Neuropsychologia, 45(5), 1080–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schaadt, G., Männel, C., van der Meer, E., Pannekamp, A., & Friederici, A. D. (2016). Facial speech gestures: The relation between visual speech processing, phonological awareness, and developmental dyslexia in 10-year-olds. Developmental Science, 19(6), 1010–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schürmann, M., Raij, T., Fujiki, N., & Hari, R. (2002). Mind's ear in a musician: Where and when in the brain. Neuroimage, 16(2), 434–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shalem, Z., & Lachman, D. (1998). Diagnostic battery for reading process in Hebrew. Nitzan: The Israeli association for the advancement of children with learning disabilities.Google Scholar
  92. Shaywitz, S. (1998). Dyslexia. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(5), 307–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shaywitz, S. E., Escobar, M. D., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., & Makuch, R. W. (1992). Evidence that dyslexia may represent the lower tail of a normal distribution of reading ability. New England Journal of Medicine, 326, 145–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Simons, D. J., & Levin, D. T. (1998). Failure to detect changes to people during a real-world interaction. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5(4), 644–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Simons, D. J., & Rensink, R. A. (2005). Change blindness: Past, present, and future. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(1), 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Soemer, A., & Saito, S. (2015). Maintenance of auditory-nonverbal information in working memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22(6), 1777–1783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sprenger-Charolles, L., Siegel, L. S., Jimenez, J. E., & Ziegler, J. C. (2011). Prevalence and reliability of phonological, surface, and mixed profiles in dyslexia: A review of studies conducted in languages varying in orthographic depth. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15(6), 498–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stein, J., Talcott, J., & Witton, C. (2001). The sensorimotor basis of developmental dyslexia (pp. 65–88). Dyslexia: Theory and Good Practice.Google Scholar
  99. Stein, J., & Walsh, V. (1997a). To see but not to read; the magnocellular theory of dyslexia. Trends in Neurosciences, 20(4), 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stoodley, C. J., & Stein, J. F. (2013). Cerebellar function in developmental dyslexia. The Cerebellum, 12(2), 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stringham, D. A., Snell, A. H., & Grunow, I. I. R. F. (2011). A multi-phase examination of Advanced Measures of Music Audiation at three American music schools. AUDEA, a Journal for Research and Applications of Music Learning Theory, 16(2), 9–17.Google Scholar
  102. Tafti, M. A., Hameedy, M. A., & Baghal, N. M. (2009). Dyslexia, a deficit or a difference: Comparing the creativity and memory skills of dyslexic and nondyslexic students in Iran. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 37(8), 1009–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tallal, P. (1980). Auditory temporal perception, phonics, and reading disabilities in children. Brain and Language, 9, 182–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Temple, E. (2002). Brain mechanisms in normal and dyslexic readers. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2), 178–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Temple, E., Poldrack, R. A., Protopapas, A., Nagarajan, S., Salz, T., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2000). Disruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(25), 13907–13912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Thompson, J. M., Fryer, B., Maltby, J., & Goswami, U. (2006). Auditory and motor rhythm awareness in adults with dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(3), 334–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Thompson, J. M., & Goswami, U. (2008). Rhythmic processing in children with developmental dyslexia: Auditory and motor rhythms link to reading and spelling. Journal of Physiology-Paris, 102(1–3), 120–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tierney, A., & Kraus, N. (2013). Music training for the development of reading skills. Progress in Brain Research, 207, 209–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 2–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vitevitch, M. S. (2003). Change deafness: The inability to detect changes between two voices. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29(2), 333–342.Google Scholar
  111. Wang, Z., Cheng-Lai, A., Song, Y., Cutting, L., Jiang, Y., Lin, O., Meng, X., & Zhou, X. (2014). A perceptual learning deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia as revealed by visual texture discrimination training. Dyslexia, 20(3), 280–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler adult intelligence scale–fourth edition (WAIS–IV). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  113. Wijnen, F., Kappers, A. M., Vlutters, L. D., & Winkel, S. (2012). Auditory frequency discrimination in adults with dyslexia: A test of the anchoring hypothesis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55(5), 1387–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wolff, P. H. (2002). Timing precision and rhythm in developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 15(1–2), 179–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wybrow, D. P., & Hanley, J. R. (2015). Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 32(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yoo, S. S., Lee, C. U., & Choi, B. G. (2001). Human brain mapping of auditory imagery: Event-related functional MRI study. Neuroreport, 12(14), 3045–3049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zatorre, R. J., Halpern, A. R., & Bouffard, M. (2010). Mental reversal of imagined melodies: A role for the posterior parietal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(4), 775–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zatorre, R. J., Halpern, A. R., Perry, D. W., Meyer, E., & Evans, A. C. (1996). Hearing in the mind's ear: A PET investigation of musical imagery and perception. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 8(1), 29–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhao, J., Yang, Y., Song, Y. W., & Bi, H. Y. (2015). Verbal short-term memory deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia may not be a problem with the activation of phonological representations. Dyslexia, 21(4), 304–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ziegler, J. C., Pech-Georgel, C., George, F., & Foxton, J. M. (2012). Global and local pitch perception in children with developmental dyslexia. Brain and Language, 120(3), 265–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Dyslexia Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communication DisordersAriel UniversityArielIsrael

Personalised recommendations