Annals of Dyslexia

, Volume 68, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Implicit sequence learning is preserved in dyslexic children

  • Filomena Inácio
  • Luís Faísca
  • Christian Forkstam
  • Susana Araújo
  • Inês Bramão
  • Alexandra Reis
  • Karl Magnus Petersson


This study investigates the implicit sequence learning abilities of dyslexic children using an artificial grammar learning task with an extended exposure period. Twenty children with developmental dyslexia participated in the study and were matched with two control groups—one matched for age and other for reading skills. During 3 days, all participants performed an acquisition task, where they were exposed to colored geometrical forms sequences with an underlying grammatical structure. On the last day, after the acquisition task, participants were tested in a grammaticality classification task. Implicit sequence learning was present in dyslexic children, as well as in both control groups, and no differences between groups were observed. These results suggest that implicit learning deficits per se cannot explain the characteristic reading difficulties of the dyslexics.


Artificial grammar learning Children Dyslexia Implicit learning Reading acquisition 


Funding information

This work was supported by national Portuguese funding through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, project ref. UID/BIM/04773/2013 CBMR, PTDC/MHC-PCN/1175/2014, and SFRH/BD/85439/2012.


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Copyright information

© The International Dyslexia Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cognitive Neuroscience Research Group, Center for Biomedical Research (CBMR)University of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  2. 2.Faculdade de Psicologia and Center for Psychological ResearchUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  4. 4.Max Planck Institute for PsycholinguisticsNijmegenThe Netherlands

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