Advertisement

Annals of Dyslexia

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 53–68 | Cite as

Beyond phonological and morphological processing: pure copying as a marker of dyslexia in Chinese but not poor reading of English

  • Sylvia Chanda Kalindi
  • Catherine McBride
  • Xiuhong Tong
  • Natalie Lok Yee Wong
  • Kien Hoa Kevin Chung
  • Chia-Ying Lee
Article

Abstract

To examine cognitive correlates of dyslexia in Chinese and reading difficulties in English as a foreign language, a total of 14 Chinese dyslexic children (DG), 16 poor readers of English (PE), and 17 poor readers of both Chinese and English (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 17 children, drawn from a statistically representative sample of 177 second graders. Children were tested on pure copying of unfamiliar stimuli, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phoneme deletion, syllable deletion, and morphological awareness. With children’s ages and Raven’s nonverbal reasoning statistically controlled, the PE and PB groups were significantly lower than the C group on phoneme deletion and RAN tasks, while the DG performed significantly better than the PB group on the RAN task. The copying task distinguished the DG group from the C group. Findings particularly highlight the importance of phoneme awareness for word reading in English (but not Chinese), the potential need for fluency training for children with reading difficulties in both Chinese and English, and the important role that copying skills could have specifically in understanding impairment of literacy skills in Chinese (but not English).

Keywords

Chinese dyslexia Poor reader Pure copying Rapid automatized naming 

Notes

Funding

This research was supported by the Collaborative Research Fund of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Research Grants Council (CUHK: 2300035) to Catherine McBride.

References

  1. Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Defior, S., Málková, G. S., & Hulme, C. (2013). Different patterns, but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies. Psychological Science, 24(8), 1398–1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Catts, H. W. (1991). Early identification of dyslexia: Evidence from a follow-up study of speech-language impaired children. Annals of Dyslexia, 41(1), 163–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chan, D. W., Ho, C. S. H., Tsang, S. M., Lee, S. H., & Chung, K. K. H. (2006). Exploring the reading-writing connection in Chinese children with dyslexia in Hong Kong. Reading and Writing, 19, 543–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan, D. W., Ho, C. S. H., Tsang, S. M., Lee, S. H., & Chung, K. K. H. (2007). Prevalence, gender ratio and gender differences in reading related cognitive abilities among Chinese children with dyslexia in Hong Kong. Education Studies, 33, 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chow, B. W. Y., McBride-Chang, C., & Burgess, S. (2005). Phonological processing skills and early reading abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Kindergarteners learning to read English as a second language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(1), 81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chung, K. K. H., & Ho, C. S.-H. (2010). Dyslexia in Chinese language: An overview of research and practice. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15(2), 213–224.Google Scholar
  7. Chung, K. K. H., Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D., Tsang, S. M., & Lee, S. H. (2010). Cognitive profiles of Chinese adolescents with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 16, 2–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chung, K. K. H., & McBride-Chang, C. (2011). Executive functioning skills uniquely predict Chinese word reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(4), 909–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chung, K. K. H., McBride-Chang, C., Cheung, H., & Wong, S. W. L. (2011). General auditory processing, speech perception and phonological awareness skills in Chinese–English biliteracy. Journal of Research in Reading, 36(2), 202–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Jong, P. F., & van der Leij, A. (1999). Specific contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition: Results from a Dutch latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 450–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fink, G., Matafwali, B., Moucheraud, C., & Zuilkowski, S. S. (2012). The Zambia early childhood development project 2012 assessment final report. Cambridge, MA: Centre on the Developing Child, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  12. Goulandris, N. (2003). Dyslexia in different languages: Cross-linguistic comparisons. London: Whurr Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Ho, S. C. H., & Bryant, P. (1997). Phonological skills are important in learning to read Chinese. Developmental Psychology, 33, 946–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D. W. O., Tsang, S. M., Lee, S. H., & Luan, V. H. (2004). Cognitive profiling and preliminary subtyping in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Cognition, 91, 43–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W. O., Tsang, S., & Lee, S. H. (2000). The Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD) manual. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team.Google Scholar
  16. Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D. W. O., Tsang, S. M., & Lee, S. H. (2002). The cognitive profile and multiple-deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 38, 543–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lam, S. S., & McBride-Chang, C. (2013). Parent–child joint writing in Chinese Kindergarteners: Explicit instruction in radical knowledge and stroke writing skills. Writing Systems Research, 1, 88–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lei, L., Pan, J., Liu, H., McBride-Chang, C., Li, H., Zhang, Y., et al. (2011). Developmental trajectories of reading development and impairment from ages 3 to 8 years in Chinese children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(2), 212–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li, T., McBride-Chang, C., Wong, A. M.-Y., & Shu, H. (2012). Longitudinal predictors of spelling and reading comprehension in Chinese as an L1 and English as an L2 in Hong Kong Chinese children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(2), 286–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liao, C. H., Georgiou, G. K., & Parrila, R. (2008). Rapid naming speed and Chinese character recognition. Reading and Writing, 21(3), 231–253.Google Scholar
  21. Lin, D., McBride-Chang, C., Aram, D., Levin, I., Cheung, R. Y. M., & Chow, Y. Y. Y. (2009). Maternal mediation of writing in Chinese children. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24(7), 1286–1311. doi: 10.1080/01690960801970615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin, D., McBride-Chang, C., Aram, D., & Levin, I. (2010). Mother-child joint writing in Chinese kindergarteners: Metalinguistic awareness, maternal mediation and literacy acquisition. Journal of Research in Reading, 34, 1–17.Google Scholar
  23. Liu, P. D., & McBride-Chang, C. (2010). What is morphological awareness? Tapping lexical compounding awareness in Chinese third graders. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lo, Y. Y., & Lo, E. S. C. (2014). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of English-medium education in Hong Kong. Review of Educational Research, 84(1), 47–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mc Bride-Chang, C., Lam, F., Lam, C., Doo, S., Wong, S. W. L., & Chow, Y. Y. Y. (2008). Word recognition and cognitive profiles of Chinese pre-school children at risk of dyslexia through language delay or familial history of dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 211–218.Google Scholar
  27. McBride-Chang, C., Bialystok, E., Chong, K. K., & Li, Y. (2004). Levels of phonological awareness in three cultures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 89(2), 93–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McBride-Chang, C., Chung, K. K. H., & Tong, X. (2011). Copying skills in relation to word reading and writing in Chinese children with and without dyslexia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110, 422–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McBride-Chang, C., Lam, F., Lam, C., Chan, B., Fong, C. Y. C., Wong, T. T. Y., et al. (2011). Early predictors of dyslexia in Chinese children: Familial history of dyslexia, language delay, and cognitive profiles. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(2), 204–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McBride-Chang, C., Liu, P. D., Wong, T., Wong, A., & Shu, H. (2012). Specific reading difficulties in Chinese, English, or both: Longitudinal markers of phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and RAN in Hong Kong Chinese children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(6), 503–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McBride-Chang, C., Shu, H., Chan, W., Wong, T., Wong, A. M. Y., Zhang, Y., et al. (2013). Poor readers of Chinese and English: Overlap, stability, and longitudinal correlates. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(1), 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McBride-Chang, C., Tong, X., Shu, H., Wong, A. M.-Y., Leung, K., & Tardif, T. (2008). Syllable, phoneme, and tone: Psycholinguistic units in Early Chinese and English word recognition. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12, 171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McBride-Chang, C., Wagner, R. K., Muse, A., Chow, B. W. Y., & Shu, H. (2005). The role of morphological awareness in children’s vocabulary acquisition in English. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 415–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Psychological Corporation (1981). Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children manual. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  35. Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1995). Raven’s colored progressive matrices. Oxford, U.K: Oxford Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  36. Shu, H., McBride-Chang, C., Wu, S., & Liu, H. (2006). Understanding Chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 122–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Siok, W. T., Niu, Z., Jin, Z., Perfetti, C. A., & Tan, L. H. (2008). A structural-functional basis for dyslexia in the cortex of Chinese readers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 5561–5566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tan, L. H., Spinks, J. A., Eden, G., Perfetti, C. A., & Siok, W. T. (2005). Reading depends on writing, in Chinese. PNAS, 102, 8781–8785. doi: 10.1073/pnas.050323102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tong, X., & McBride-Chang, C. (2010). Developmental models of learning to read Chinese words. Developmental Psychology, 46(6), 1662.Google Scholar
  40. Tong, X., McBride, C., Zhang, J., Chung, K. K., Lee, C. Y., Shuai, L., et al. (2014). Neural correlates of acoustic cues of English lexical stress in Cantonese-speaking children. Brain and Language, 138, 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tong, X., Tong, X., & McBride-Chang, C. (2013). A tale of two writing systems: Double dissociation and metalinguistic transfer between Chinese and English word reading among Hong Kong children. Journal of Learning Disabilities. doi: 10.1177/0022219413492854.Google Scholar
  42. Vellutino, F. R. (1979). Dyslexia: Theory and research (pp. 74–81). Cambridge, MA: MIT press.Google Scholar
  43. Vellutino, F. R. (1987). Dyslexia. Scientific American. pp. 34–41.Google Scholar
  44. Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scalon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learnt in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 45, 2–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang, Y., McBride-Chang, C., & Chan, S. F. (2013). Correlates of Chinese kindergarteners’ word reading and writing: the unique role of copying skills? Reading and Writing, 1–22.Google Scholar
  46. Wimmer, H., Mayringer, H., & Landerl, K. (2000). The double-deficit hypothesis and difficulties in learning to read a regular orthography. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 668–680. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.92.4.668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang, X., Zhao, Q., Xue, H., & Dong, J. (2011). Interactive creation of Chinese calligraphy with the application in calligraphy education. Transactions on Edutainment V, 6530, 112–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Dyslexia Association 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sylvia Chanda Kalindi
    • 1
  • Catherine McBride
    • 2
  • Xiuhong Tong
    • 1
  • Natalie Lok Yee Wong
    • 1
  • Kien Hoa Kevin Chung
    • 3
  • Chia-Ying Lee
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  3. 3.Department of Special Education and CounsellingThe Hong Kong Institute of EducationShatinHong Kong
  4. 4.Institute of LinguisticsAcademia SinicaTaipeiRepublic of China

Personalised recommendations