Annals of Dyslexia

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Reading fluency: implications for the assessment of children with reading disabilities

  • Elizabeth B. Meisinger
  • Juliana S. Bloom
  • George W. Hynd
Article

Abstract

The current investigation explored the diagnostic utility of reading fluency measures in the identification of children with reading disabilities. Participants were 50 children referred to a university-based clinic because of suspected reading problems and/or a prior diagnosis of dyslexia, where children completed a battery of standardized intellectual, reading achievement, and processing measures. Within this clinical sample, a group of children were identified that exhibited specific deficits in their reading fluency skills with concurrent deficits in rapid naming speed and reading comprehension. This group of children would not have been identified as having a reading disability according to assessment of single word reading skills alone, suggesting that it is essential to assess reading fluency in addition to word reading because failure to do so may result in the under-identification of children with reading disabilities.

Keywords

Assessment Dyslexia Phonological processing Rapid naming Reading disability Reading fluency 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, R. C., Wilson, P. T., & Fielding, L. G. (1988). Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. August, G. J., & Garfinkel, B. D. (1990). Comorbidity of ADHD and reading disability among clinic-referred children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowers, P. G. (1993). Text reading and rereading: Determinants of fluency beyond word recognition. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25, 133–153.Google Scholar
  5. Breen, M. J., & Drecktrah, M. (1990). Similarity among common measures of academic achievement: Implications for assessing disabled children. Psychological Reports, 67, 379–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breznitz, Z., & Berman, L. (2003). The underlying factors of word reading rate. Educational Psychology Review, 15, 247–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chall, J. S. (1996). Stages of reading development (2nd ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt-Brace.Google Scholar
  8. Chall, J. S., Jacobs, V., & Baldwin, L. (1990). The reading crisis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Deno, S. L. (2003). Developments in curriculum-based measurement. Remedial and Special Education, 37, 184–192.Google Scholar
  10. Dombrowski, S. C., Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (2004). After the demise of the discrepancy: Proposed learning disabilities diagnostic criteria. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 35, 364–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fletcher, J. M. (1985). External validation of learning disability subtype. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Neuropsychology essentials of subtype analysis (pp. 187–211). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  12. Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Shankweiler, D. P., Katz, L., Liberman, I. Y., Stuebing, K. K., et al. (1994). Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 6–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Text fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Maxwell, L. (1988). The validity of informal reading comprehension measures. Remedial and Special Education, 9, 20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA), Pub. L. No. 108–446, 118 Stat. 2647 (2004).Google Scholar
  16. Jenkins, J. R., Fuchs, L. S., Van Der Broek, P., Epsin, C., & Deno, S. L. (2003a). Sources of individual differences in reading comprehension and reading fluency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 719–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jenkins, J. R., Fuchs, L. S., Van Der Broek, P., Epsin, C., & Deno, S. L. (2003b). Accuracy and fluency in list and context reading of skilled and RD groups: Absolute and relative performance levels. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18, 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Katzir, T., Kim, Y. S., Wolf, M., Morris, R., & Lovett, M. (2008). The varieties of pathways to dysfluent reading: Comparing subtypes of children with dyslexia at letter, word, and connected text levels of reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 47–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Katzir, T., Shaul, S., Breznitz, Z., & Wolf, M. (2004). The universal and the unique in dyslexia: A cross-linguistic investigation of reading and reading fluency in hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading disorders. Reading and Writing, 17, 739–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (1985). Kaufman test of educational achievement. Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  21. Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2004). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lefly, D. L., & Pennington, B. F. (1991). Spelling errors and reading fluency in compensated adult dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leinonen, S., Muller, K., Leppanen, P., Aro, M., Ahonen, T., & Lyytinen, H. (2001). Heterogeneity in adult dyslexic readers: Relating processing skills to the speed and accuracy of oral text reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 265–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lesile, L., & Caldwell, J. (1995). Qualitative reading inventory—2. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  26. Liberman, I. Y., & Shankwiler, D. (1991). Phonology and beginning reading: A tutorial. In L. Rieben & C. A. Perfetti (Eds.), Basic research and its implications (pp. 3–17). Rieben: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. Lombardino, L. J., Riccio, C., Hynd, G. W., & Pinheiro, S. B. (1997). Linguistic deficits in children with reading disabilities. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6(3), 71–78.Google Scholar
  28. Lovett, M. W. (1984). A developmental perspective on reading dysfunction: Accuracy and rate in the subtyping of dyslexic children. Brain and Language, 22, 67–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lovett, M. W. (1987). A developmental approach to reading disability: Accuracy and speed criteria of normal and deficient reading skill. Child Development, 58, 234–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lyon, G. R. (1995). Towards a definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 45, 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lyon, G. R., & Moats, L. C. (1997). Critical conceptual and methodological considerations in reading intervention research. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 578–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McCabe, P. P., Margolis, H., & Barenabum, E. (2001). A comparison of Woodcock–Johnson psycho-educational battery-revised and qualitative reading inventory—II instructional reading levels. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 17, 279–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meisinger, E. B., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Woo, D. (2009). The contribution of text reading fluency to reading comprehension in the elementary grades. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  35. Meyer, M. R., & Felton, R. H. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 283–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morris, R. D., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Lyon, G. R., Shankweiler, D. P., et al. (1998). Subtypes of reading disability: Variability around a phonological core. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 347–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nation, K., & Snowling, M. (1997). Assessing reading difficulties: The validity and utility of current measures of reading skill. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 259–370.Google Scholar
  38. National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the national reading panel. Washington: National Reading Panel.Google Scholar
  39. Perfetti, C. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. Reading Teacher, 58, 510–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pinnell, G. S., Pikulski, J. J., Wixon, K. K., Campbell, J. R., Gough, P. B., & Beatty, A. S. (1995). Listening to children read aloud. Washington: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  42. Raskinski, T. V. (2001). Speed does matter in reading. The Reading Teacher, 54(2), 146–156.Google Scholar
  43. Schwanenflugel, P. J., Meisinger, E. B., Wisenbaker, J., Kuhn, M., & Morris, R. (2006). Becoming a fluent and automatic reader: A cross-sectional study. Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 469–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shankweiler, D., Crain, S., Katz, L., Fowler, A. E., Liberman, A. M., Brady, S. A., et al. (1995). Cognitive profiles of reading-disabled children: Comparison of language skills in phonology, morphology, and syntax. Psychological Science, 6, 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Katz, L., Stuebing, K., & Fletcher, J. M. (1999). Comprehension and decoding: Patterns of association in children with reading difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shaywitz, S. E. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and completely science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  47. Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., Holahan, J. M., Shneider, A. E., Marchione, K. E., Stuebing, K. K., et al. (1995). Innerrelationships between reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 170–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shinn, M. R., Good, R. H., Knutson, N., Tilly, W. D., & Collins, V. L. (1992). Curriculum-based measurement of oral reading fluency: A confirmatory analysis of its relation to reading. School Psychology Review, 21, 459–479.Google Scholar
  49. Siegel, L. (1999). Issues in the definition and diagnosis of learning disabilities: A perspective on Guckenberger v. Boston University. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 304–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sofie, C. A., & Riccio, C. A. (2002). A comparison of multiple methods for the identification of children with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 234–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stage, S. A., Sheppard, J., Davison, M., Davidson, M. M., & Browning, M. M. (2001). Prediction of first-graders’ growth in oral reading fluency using kindergarten letter fluency. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 225–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stanovich, K. E. (1999). The sociometrics of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 350–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stanovich, K. E., & Siegel, L. S. (1994). Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 24–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stecker, P. M., & Fuchs, L. S. (2000). Effecting superior achievement using curriculum based measurement: The importance of individual progress monitoring. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 128–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., LeDoux, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2002). Validity if IQ-discrepancy classification of reading disabilities: A met-analysis. American Educational research Journal, 39, 469–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor, B. M., Frye, B. J., & Maruyama, G. M. (1990). Time spent reading and readinggrowth. American Educational Research Journal, 27, 351–362.Google Scholar
  57. The Psychological Corporation. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  58. Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Alexander, A. W. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, fluency, & the brain. Timonium: New York Press.Google Scholar
  59. Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 2–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., & Lyon, R. G. (2000). Differentiating between difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small, S. G., Pratt, A., Chen, R., et al. (1996). Cognitive profile of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early interventions as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 601–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1999). Comprehensive test of phonological processing. Austin: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  63. Wayman, M. M., Wallace, T., Wiley, H. I., Tichdt, R., & Espin, C. A. (2007). Literature synthesis on curriculum-based measurement in reading. The Journal of Special Education, 41(2), 85–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wiederholt, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (1986). Gray oral reading tests—revised (GORT-R). Austin: Pro-ed.Google Scholar
  65. Wiederholt, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (1995). Gray oral reading tests—third edition (GORT-3). Austin: Pro-ed.Google Scholar
  66. Wiederholt, J. L., & Bryant, B. R. (2001). Gray oral reading tests—fourth edition (GORT-4). Austin: Pro-ed.Google Scholar
  67. Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. (1999). The “Double-Deficit Hypothesis” for the developmental dyslexic. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wolf, M., Bowers, P., & Biddle, K. (2000). Naming-speed processes, timing, and reading: A conceptual review. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 387–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wolf, M., & Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001). Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wolf, M., O’Rourke, A., Gidney, C., Lovett, M., Cirino, P., & Morris, R. (2002). The second deficit: An investigation of the independence of phonological and naming-speed deficits in developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15, 43–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Woodcock, R. W. (1998a). Woodcock reading mastery tests–revised. Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  72. Woodcock, R. W. (1998b). Woodcock reading mastery test—revised. Circle Pines: AGS.Google Scholar
  73. Woodcock, R. W., & Mather, N. (1990). Woodcock–Johnson psycho-educational battery-revised, tests of achievement. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  74. Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). Woodcock–Johnson III test of achievement. Itasca: Riverside.Google Scholar
  75. Young, A. R., & Bowers, P. G. (1995). Individual differences and text difficulty determinants of reading fluency and expressiveness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 60, 428–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The International Dyslexia Association 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth B. Meisinger
    • 1
  • Juliana S. Bloom
    • 2
  • George W. Hynd
    • 3
  1. 1.University of MemphisMemphisUSA
  2. 2.The Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Arizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations