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Emission factors of selected air pollutants from rice straw burning in Hanoi, Vietnam


Rice straw open burning (RSOB) after harvest is one of the considerable emission sources in agricultural activities and contributed to air pollution in Vietnam. Determination of country/city-specific emission factors for air pollutants from open burning is important for the better estimation of air pollutant emission. In this research, hood experiments and field experiments were conducted simulating the common small pile burning type used by farmers in the North of Vietnam to determine emission factors (EFs) for gaseous pollutants, particulate matter (PM), and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The carbon_mass balance and emission ratio method were used to calculate EFs for the field experiments. The PM2.5 emission factor obtained for open field burning (34.0 ± 17.6 g kg−1 RS), the EFs for SO2 (1.4 ± 1.1 g kg−1 RS for field experiments and 1.82 ± 1.77 g kg−1 RS for hood experiments) in this study was higher in comparison with the values reported in Thailand and China. Laboratory experiments showed positive correlation between RS carbon content and EF of CO2. The higher proportion and the contribution of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) to the total 10 detected PAHs bound to PM2.5 in RS burning smoke was the first observation in this study. Based on the EFs developed in this study, we estimated that RSOB released the amount of 369.6 Gg for CO2, 13.7 Gg for CO, 0.67 Gg for SO2, 0.35 Gg for NO2, 10.8 Gg for PM2.5, and 32 Mg for total 10 particle-bound PAHs to the atmosphere in Hanoi. These results are useful for integrated air-quality management in local as well as national scale.

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Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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The authors wish to acknowledge Dr. Nguyen Thi Thu Hien and all members of Research and Development Laboratory, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam, for supporting in sampling in the field and hood experiments.

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This research was funded by: 1) the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) grant number 105.08-2017.11; 2) a Grant in Aid for Scientific Research (18K11676) from Japan Society for the Promotion Science; 3) the Steel Foundation for Environmental Protection Technology. This research was aslo conducted in part under the cooperative research program of Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University.

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Pham, CT., Ly, BT., Nghiem, TD. et al. Emission factors of selected air pollutants from rice straw burning in Hanoi, Vietnam. Air Qual Atmos Health 14, 1757–1771 (2021).

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  • Air pollutants
  • Emission factor
  • Rice straw open burning
  • Small pile burning
  • Emission inventory