Traffic-calming measures act as the instruments to reduce the speed of vehicles. They make a major contribution to road safety; however, on the other hand, air pollution is more likely to occur due to the fact that motor vehicles use brakes and accelerate more frequently. The study reviewed two types of traffic-calming devices, that is, trapezoid-shaped speed humps made of asphalt and plastic circular speed bumps. The obtained results showed an increase in the concentrations of NO, NO2 and CO found in the pollutants emitted from the vehicles approaching speed bumps/humps compared to the concentrations of the same types of pollutants at the check points. As for trapezoidal speed humps, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide increased on average by 1.8 times, that of nitrogen monoxide by 4.3 times and that of carbon monoxide by 2.2 times. Meanwhile, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at circular plastic speed bumps rose on average by 2.5 times, that of nitric monoxide by 5.0 times and that of carbon monoxide by 3.2 times.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahn K, Rakha H (2009) A field evaluation case study of the environmental and energy impacts of traffic calming. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ 14:411–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2009.01.007
Baldauf R, Watkins N, Heist D et al (2009) Near-road air quality monitoring: factors affecting network design and interpretation of data. Air Qual Atmos Health 2:1–9
Baltrėnas P, Vaitiekūnas P, Mincevič I (2004) Investigation on the impact of transport exhaust emissions on the air. J Environ Eng Landsc Manag 12:3–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/16486897.2004.9636809
Baltrėnas HP, Januševičius T, Chlebnikovas A (2017) Research into the impact of speed bumps on particulate matter air pollution. Meas J Int Meas Confed 100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2016.12.042
Boulter PG, Latham S, Ainge M (1999) Driving cycles for measuring passenger car emissions on roads with traffic calming measures. Sci Total Environ 235:77–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00193-X
Daham B, Andrews GE, Li H et al (2005) Quantifying the effects of traffic calming on emissions using on-road measurements. SAE Technical Papers, Detroit
De Borger B, Proost S (2013) Traffic externalities in cities: the economics of speed bumps, low emission zones and city bypasses. J Urban Econ 76:53–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2013.02.004
Ewing R (2001) Impacts of traffic calming. Transp Q 55:33–45
Franco V, Kousoulidou M, Muntean M et al (2013) Road vehicle emission factors development: a review. Atmos Environ 70:84–97
Ghafghazi G, Hatzopoulou M (2015) Simulating the air quality impacts of traffic calming schemes in a dense urban neighborhood. Transp Res PART D 35:11–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2014.11.014
Haworth N, Symmons M (2001) the Relationship Between Fuel Economy and Safety Outcomes
Höglund, Paul G; Niittymaki J (1999) Estimating vehicle emissions and air pollution related to driving patterns and traffic calming. In: Urban transport Systems. pp 1–11
Int Panis L, Broekx S, Liu R (2006) Modelling instantaneous traffic emission and the influence of traffic speed limits. Sci Total Environ 371:270–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.08.017
Joumard R, Jost P, Hickman J, Hassel D (1995) Hot passenger car emissions modelling as a function of instantaneous speed and acceleration. Sci Total Environ 169:167–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04645-H
Kordani AA, Molan AM, Monajjem S, Sadeghvaziri E (2014) Simulation modeling of dynamic response of vehicles to different types of speed control humps. In: T and DI congress 2014: Planes, trains, and automobiles - proceedings of the 2nd Transportation and Development Institute Congress
Lee G, Joo S, Oh C, Choi K (2013) An evaluation framework for traffic calming measures in residential areas. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ 25:68–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2013.08.002
Litman T (1999) Traffic calming: benefits, costs and equity impacts
Lu W, Jiang Y, Chen S et al (2016) Multi-objective traffic calming measures for roadways passing through rural communities. Adv Transp Stud 38:59–74. https://doi.org/10.4399/978885489209505
Luoma J, Sivak M (2012) Interactions of environmental and safety measures for sustainable road transportation. Eur Transp Res Rev 4:189–199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12544-012-0078-5
Molan AM, Kordani AA (2014) Optimization of speed hump profiles based on vehicle dynamic performance modeling. J Transp Eng 140:04014035. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000686
Owen B (2005) Air quality impacts of speed-restriction zones for road traffic. Sci Total Environ 340:13–22
Palmgren F, Berkowicz R, Ziv A, Hertel O (1999) Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models. Sci Total Environ 235:101–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00196-5
Rothman L, Macpherson A, Buliung R et al (2015) Installation of speed humps and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Toronto, Canada: a quasi-experimental study. BMC Public Health 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2116-4
Salau TAO, Adeyefa AO, Oke SA (2004) Vehicle speed control using road bumps. Transport 19:130–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/16484142.2004.9637965
Takeshita T (2012) Assessing the co-benefits of CO2 mitigation on air pollutants emissions from road vehicles. Appl Energy 97:225–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.12.029
Tester JM, Rutherford GW, Wald Z, Rutherford MW (2004) A matched case-control study evaluating the effectiveness of speed humps in reducing child pedestrian injuries. Am J Public Health 94:646–650. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.94.4.646
Vaitiekūnas P, Banaityte R (2007) Modeling of motor transport exhaust pollutant dispersion. J Environ Eng Landsc Manag 15:39–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/16486897.2007.9636906
Zhang K, Batterman S (2013) Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic. Sci Total Environ 450–451:307–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.074
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Januševičius, T., Grubliauskas, R. The effect of speed bumps and humps on the concentrations of CO, NO and NO2 in ambient air. Air Qual Atmos Health 12, 635–642 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-019-00683-y
- Speed bumps
- Speed humps
- Carbon monoxide
- Nitrogen oxides
- Pollution caused by road transport