Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 559–569 | Cite as

Cycle reservoir with regular jumps for forecasting ozone concentrations: two real cases from the east of Croatia

CRJ for forecasting ozone concentrations
  • Alaa Sheta
  • Hossam Faris
  • Ali Rodan
  • Elvira Kovač-Andrić
  • Ala’ M. Al-ZoubiEmail author


Satisfying the national air quality standards represents a challenge nowadays for developing countries. Air pollution in industrial cities is one of the foremost problems that affect human health and might cause loss of human life. One of the main attributes that can cause a significant impact on people’s health is the ground-level ozone pollution. Ozone can raise the ratio of asthma attacks, permanent damage to lungs, and maybe death. Forecasting its concentration levels is essential for planning well-designed environment protection strategies. In this paper, a state-space reservoir model called cycle reservoir with jumps (CRJ) is used to predict the level of ozone concentrations in the east of Croatia utilizing some meteorological parameters including the temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and the pollutants PM10. CRJ is a particular type of recurrent neural networks with powerful performance when applied for complex temporal problems. Two cases from the east of Croatia are investigated in this work: the Kopaćki Rit area and the Osijek city. The proposed CRJ model shows superiority of CRJ model in forecasting ozone concentrations compared to linear regression, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) network.


Neural networks Reservoirs Ozone prediction CRJ Croatia 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support given to the project by the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports. The authors also thank Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia and the Ministry of Environmental and Nature Protection.

Funding Information

This research was funded by the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computing SciencesTexas A&M University-Corpus ChristiCorpus ChristiUSA
  2. 2.Business Information Technology Department, King Abdullah II School for Information TechnologyThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Higher Colleges of Technology, United Arab Emirates, and King Abdullah II School for Information TechnologyThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryUniversity of J. J. StrossmayerOsijekCroatia

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