Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 225–234 | Cite as

Source apportionment of BTEX compounds in Tehran, Iran using UNMIX receptor model

Article

Abstract

Understanding the distribution levels and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC), mainly benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX), in the ambient atmosphere is important for efficiently managing and implementing the associated control strategies. We measured BTEX compounds at an industrial location in the west Tehran city (Iran), which is highly influenced by industrial activities and traffic during the winter and spring seasons during 2014–2015. A multivariate receptor model, UNMIX, was applied on the measured data for the identification of the sources and their contributions to BTEX compounds in a highly industrialised and trafficked atmospheric environment of Tehran city. Three main groups of sources were identified. These included solvent and painting sources (e.g. vehicle manufacturing), motorised road vehicles and mixed origin sources. Whilst the solvent and painting sources and vehicle exhaust emissions contributed to about 5 and 29 % of total BTEX mass, respectively, the mixed origin source contributed to about two third (∼66 %) of the remaining mass. These mixed origin sources included rubber and plastic manufacturing (39 %), leather industries (28 %) and the unknown sources (33 %). The mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and average xylene (o, p.m.) compounds were measured as 28.96 ± 9.12 μg m−3, 29.55 ± 9.73 μg m−3, 28.61 ± 12.2 μg/m−3 and 25.68 ± 10.58 μg m−3, respectively. A high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.94) was also found between predicted (modelled) and measured concentrations for each sample. Further analyses from UNMIX receptor model showed that the average weekday contributions of BTEX compounds were significantly higher during winter compared with those during spring. This higher concentration during winter may be attributed to calm wind conditions and high stability of the atmosphere, along with the after effect of government policies on the use of cleaner fuel in refineries that became operational in winter 2014.

Keywords

Source apportionment BTEX compounds UNMIX receptor model Urban environment Tehran air quality 

References

  1. Al-Dabbous AN, Kumar P (2014) Number and size distribution of airborne nanoparticles during summertime in Kuwait: first observations from the Middle East. Environ Sc Technol 48:13634–13643. doi:10.1021/es505175u CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Dabbous AN, Kumar P (2015) Source apportionment of airborne nanoparticles in a Middle Eastern city using positive matrix factorization. Environ Sci 17:802–812Google Scholar
  3. Berglund B, Brunekreef B, Knöppe H, Lindvall T, Maroni M, Mølhave L, Skov P (1992) Effects of indoor air pollution on human health. Indoor Air 2:2–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blifford IH, Meeker GO (1967) A factor analysis model of large scale pollution (1967). Atmos Environ 1:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan DW, Tam CS, Jones A (2007) An inter-comparison of VOC types and distribution in different indoor environments in a university campus. Indoor Built Environ 16:376–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan LY et al. (2006) Characteristics of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in industrial, industrial-urban, and industrial-suburban atmospheres of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of south China Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012) 111Google Scholar
  7. Chow J, Egami R, Watson J, DeLong T (1990) Applying the air quality source apportionments to geothermal power plant emissions. Bull Geothermal Res Counc 19:208–213Google Scholar
  8. Chow JC, Spengler JD (1986) A method of combining dispersion models and trajectory models with principal component analysis and chemical mass balance receptor models Transactions, Receptor Methods for Source Apportionment: Real World Issues and Applications, TG Pace, ed Air Pollut Control Assoc, Pittsburgh, PA:194Google Scholar
  9. Cleland J, Kingsbury G, Mixon P (2002) United States Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  10. Cockerham LG, Shane BS (1993) Basic environmental toxicology. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  11. Crump KS (1994) Risk of benzene-induced leukemia: a sensitivity analysis of the pliofilm cohort with additional follow-up and new exposure estimates. J Toxicol Environ Health 42:219–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dutta C, Som D, Chatterjee A, Mukherjee A, Jana T, Sen S (2009) Mixing ratios of carbonyls and BTEX in ambient air of Kolkata, India and their associated health risk. Environ Monit Assess 148:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gee IL, Sollars CJ (1998) Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds in Latin American and Asian cities. Chemosphere 36:2497–2506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Helmes C et al (1982) Evaluation and classification of the potential carcinogenicity of organic air pollutants. J Environ Sci Health Part A 17:321–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Henry RC (1994) Vehicle-related hydrocarbon source compositions from ambient data: the GRACE/SAFER method. Environ Sci Technol 37, 37–42Google Scholar
  16. Henry RC (1997) History and fundamentals of multivariate air quality receptor models. Chemometrics Intell Lab Syst 37:37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Henry RC (2000) UNMIX Version 2 Manual Prepared for the US Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  18. Hester RE, Harrison RM (1995) Volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. vol 4. Royal Society of ChemistryGoogle Scholar
  19. Hong Y-J, Jeng HA, Gau Y-Y, Lin C, Lee I-L (2006) Distribution of volatile organic compounds in ambient air of Kaohsiung. Taiwan Environ Monit Assess 119:43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hopke PK (2003) Recent developments in receptor modeling. J Chemometr 17:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoque RR, Khillare P, Agarwal T, Shridhar V, Balachandran S (2008) Spatial and temporal variation of BTEX in the urban atmosphere of Delhi. India Sci Total Environ 392:30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ilgen E, Levsen K, Angerer J, Schneider P, Heinrich J, Wichmann H-E (2001) Aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment. Part III: personal monitoring. Atmos Environ 35:1265–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iran SCo (2015) The estimated population of the Tehran city (http://www.amarorgir/Defaultaspx?tabid=2091)
  24. Jia C, Batterman S, Godwin C (2008) VOCs in industrial, urban and suburban neighborhoods, Part 1: indoor and outdoor concentrations, variation, and risk drivers. Atmos Environ 42:2083–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khoder MI (2007) Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo. Atmos Environ 41:554–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim H, Bernstein JA (2009) Air pollution and allergic disease. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 9:128–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumar P, Fennell P, Britter R (2008) Measurements of particles in the 5–1000 nm range close to road level in an urban street canyon. Sci Total Environ 390:437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumar P, Ketzel M, Vardoulakis S, Pirjola L, Britter R (2011) Dynamics and dispersion modelling of nanoparticles from road traffic in the urban atmospheric environment. Rev J Aerosol Sci 42:580–603. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2011.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kumar P et al (2014) Ultrafine particles in cities. Environ Int 66:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kumar P, Pirjola L, Ketzel M, Harrison RM (2013) Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources. Rev Atmos Environ 67:252–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Larsen RK, Baker JE (2003) Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: a comparison of three methods. Environ Sci Technol 37:1873–1881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lu J, Bzdusek PA, Christensen ER, Arora S (2005) Estimating sources of PAHs in sediments of the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin, by a chemical mass balance model. J Great Lakes Res 31:456–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mansha M, Saleemi AR, Naqvi JH (2011) Status and spatial visualization of toxic pollutants (BTEX) in urban atmosphere advances in chemical. Eng Sci 1:231Google Scholar
  34. Marć M, Namieśnik J, Zabiegała B (2014) BTEX concentration levels in urban air in the area of the Tri-City agglomeration (Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot), Poland Air Quality. Atmos Health 7:489–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Monod A, Sive BC, Avino P, Chen T, Blake DR, Rowland FS (2001) Monoaromatic compounds in ambient air of various cities: a focus on correlations between the xylenes and ethylbenzene. Atmos Environ 35:135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mouzourides P, Kumar P, Neophytou MKA (2015) Assessment of long-term measurements of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in South-East Mediterranean Atmos Environ 107:148-165 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.031
  37. Mukerjee S et al (2004) Field method comparison between passive air samplers and continuous monitors for VOCs and NO in El Paso, Texas. Air and Waste Manage 54:307–319Google Scholar
  38. Muezzinoglu A, Odabasi M, Onat L (2001) Volatile organic compounds in the air of Izmir. Turkey Atmos Environ 35:753–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Paatero P, Tapper U (1994) Positive matrix factorization: a non‐negative factor model with optimal utilization of error estimates of data values. Environmetrics 5:111–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Park SS, Kim YJ, Kang CH (2002) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Seoul. Korea Atmos Environ 36:2917–2924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Possanzini M, Di Palo V, Gigliucci P, Scianò MCT, Cecinato A (2004) Determination of phase-distributed PAH in Rome ambient air by denuder/GC-MS method. Atmos Environ 38:1727–1734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rad HD, Babaei AA, Goudarzi G, Angali KA, Ramezani Z, Mohammadi MM (2014) Levels and sources of BTEX in ambient air of Ahvaz metropolitan city air quality. Atmos Health 7:515–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Samek L, Stegowski Z, Furman L, Fiedor J (2016) Chemical content and estimated sources of fine fraction of particulate matter collected in Krakow Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health:1-6Google Scholar
  44. Sarkhosh M, Mahvi AH, Yunesian M, Nabizadeh R, Borji SH, Bajgirani AG (2013) Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Tehran. Iran Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:440–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shraim AM, Alenazi DA, Abdel-Salam A-SG, Kumar P (2016) Loading Rates of Dust and Metals in Residential Houses of Arid and Dry Climatic Regions Aerosol and Air Quality ResearchGoogle Scholar
  46. Wallace LA (2001) Human exposure to volatile organic pollutants: implications for indoor air studies. Ann Rev Energy Environ 26:269–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang B et al (2013) Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of Huanghuai Plain, China: comparison of three receptor models. Sci Total Environ 443:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yuan B, Shao M, Lu S, Wang B (2010) Source profiles of volatile organic compounds associated with solvent use in Beijing. China Atmos Environ 44:1919–1926CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Hadi Dehghani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daryoush Sanaei
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shahrokh Nazmara
    • 1
  • Prashant Kumar
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIslamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2.Institute for Environmental Research, Center for Solid Waste ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIslamic Republic of Iran
  3. 3.Center for Air Pollution Research, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIslamic Republic of Iran
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical SciencesUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK
  5. 5.Environmental Flow (EnFlo) Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering and Physical SciencesUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations