In a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we examined the associations of short-term air pollutant exposures with pulmonary inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled pulmonary nitric oxide (FeNO). Sixty-nine Boston Metropolitan residents with T2DM completed up to five biweekly visits with 321 offline FeNO measurements. We measured ambient concentrations of particle mass, number, and components at our stationary central site. Ambient concentrations of gaseous air pollutants were obtained from state monitors. We used linear models with fixed effects for participants, adjusting for 24-h mean temperature, 24-h mean water vapor pressure, season, and scrubbed room NO the day of the visit, to estimate the associations between FeNO and interquartile range (IQR) increases in exposure. Interquartile increases in the 6-h averages of black carbon (BC) (0.5 μg/m3) and particle number (PN) (1000 particles/cm3) were associated with increases in FeNO of 3.84 % (95 % CI = 0.60 to 7.18 %) and 9.86 % (95 % CI = 3.59 to 16.52 %), respectively. We also found significant associations of increases in FeNO with increases in 24-h moving averages of BC, PN, and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Recent studies have focused on FeNO as a marker for eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic populations. This study adds support to the relevance of FeNO as a marker for pulmonary inflammation in diabetic populations, whose underlying chronic inflammatory status is likely to be related to innate immunity and proinflammatory adipokines.
Air pollution Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide Diabetes mellitus Epidemiology Particles
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This study is funded by NIEHS PO1 ES-09825, NIEHS R21 ES-020194-01, US EPA RD-83241601, and US EPA RD-83479801. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the grantee and do not necessarily represent the official views of the US EPA. Further, US EPA does not endorse the purchase of any commercial products or services mentioned in the publication. The authors are grateful to all participants of the study and the staff responsible for data collection.
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has any actual or potential competing financial interests.
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