Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 747–757 | Cite as

Indoor–outdoor concentrations of particulate matter in nine microenvironments of a mix-use commercial building in megacity Delhi

  • Radha Goyal
  • Prashant KumarEmail author


Three naturally and six mechanically ventilated microenvironments (MEs) of a mix-use commercial building in Delhi are used to study indoor–outdoor (I/O) relationships of particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), and ≤1 μm (PM1). Effect of environmental and occupancy parameters on the concentrations of PM during working and non-working hours (i.e., activity and non-activity periods, respectively) are also investigated. Average outdoor concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were found to exceed the 24-h averaged national standard values, showing a polluted environment surrounding the studied building. During working hours, indoor PM10 concentration was found 6–10 times, both PM2.5 and PM1 were 1.5–2 times, higher than the non-working hours in the selected MEs. The variations of indoor concentrations were highest (17.1–601.2 μg/m3) for PM10 compared with PM2.5 (16.9–102.6 μg/m3) and PM1.0 (10.6–63.6 μg/m3). The I/O for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 varied from 0.37–3.1, 0.2–3.2, and 0.17–2.9, respectively. The results suggest highest I/O for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 as 3.1, 2.15, and 1.76, respectively, in all the three natural-ventilated MEs (canteen, kitchen, reception). Irrespective of PM types, the average I/O was <1 for mechanically ventilated MEs compared with >1 for naturally ventilated MEs. As opposed to PM1, better correlation (r > 0.6) was noted between indoor PM10, PM2.5, and CO2 concentrations in most of the airtight MEs.


Particulate matter Building microenvironment Environmental comfort parameters Occupancy I/O relationship Megacity Delhi 



The authors would like to thank the Director of CSIR- National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) for providing support for present research. They would also like to thank the Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, for providing the instrumental support and Ms. Papiya Mandal, Scientist, NEERI, Delhi Zonal Laboratory for providing the help during the experimental campaigns to carry out the monitoring work.

Supplementary material

11869_2013_212_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (88 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 87 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIR-NEERI, Delhi Zonal LaboratoryNaraina Industrial AreaDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (FEPS)University of SurreyGuildfordUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.Environmental Flow (EnFlo) Research Centre, FEPSUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUnited Kingdom

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