Evaluation of intake fractions for different subpopulations due to primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted from domestic wood combustion and traffic in Finland
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Domestic wood combustion and traffic are the two most significant primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emission source categories in Finland. We estimated emission–exposure relationships for primary PM2.5 emissions from these source categories using intake fractions (iF), which describes the fraction of an emission that is ultimately inhaled by a target population. The iFs were calculated for four different emission source subcategories in Finland in 2000: (1) domestic wood combustion in residential buildings, (2) domestic wood combustion in recreational buildings, (3) traffic exhaust and wear emissions, and (4) traffic resuspension emissions. The iFs were estimated for both total population and for subpopulations with different gender, age, and educational status. Primary PM2.5 emissions were based on the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario model and the dispersion of particles was calculated using the Urban Dispersion Modeling system of Finnish Meteorological Institute. Both emissions and dispersion were estimated on a 1 km spatial resolution. The iFs for primary PM2.5 emissions from (1) residential and (2) recreational buildings were 3.4 and 0.6 per million, respectively. The corresponding iF for (3) traffic exhaust and wear and (4) traffic resuspension emissions were 9.7 and 9.5 per million, respectively. The differences in population-weighted outdoor concentrations were significant between subpopulations with different educational status so that people with higher education were exposed more to traffic-related PM2.5.
KeywordsiF Intake fraction Exposure Particulate matter Domestic combustion Traffic
This study was performed as a part of the projects PILTTI (funded by the Ministry of the Environment, Finland, grant no. YM57/065/2005), INTARESE (funded by European Union, grant no. 018385–2), BIOHER (funded by Finnish Academy, grant no. 10155), MEGAPOLI (funded by European Union, FP/2007-2011, grant no. 212520), and Climate change, air quality and housing—future challenges to public health CLAIH (funded by Finnish Academy, grant no. 129355). This work was a part of the work in the Centre for Environmental Health Risk Analysis (jointly funded by the Academy of Finland, grants no. 53307, 111775, and 108571, and the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes) grant no. 40715/01).
We would like to thank Mr. Kari Pasanen for his valuable help with ArcGis calculations.
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