In this article, we report on the development of a novel, video-based measure of teachers’ moment-to-moment noticing as knowledge-filtered perception. We developed items to capture teachers’ perception of similarity of their own teaching to the teaching shown in three short video clips of authentic classroom instruction. We describe the item design and relate teachers’ moment-to-moment noticing to their reflective noticing as measured by judgements of similarity teachers provided after viewing each video. Consistent with theory, correlations were of moderate size and provided evidence that the measures captured somewhat different information. We suggest that the difference can be explained by different cognitive processes: the moment-to-moment measure primarily captured noticing as a function of bottom-up (nonconscious) processes, while reflective noticing engaged top-down (conscious) processes. We conclude by considering strengths and limitations of this novel approach and the usefulness of differentiating between bottom-up and top-down processes to characterize existing measures of teacher noticing.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Blomberg, G., Sherin, M. G., Renkl, A., Glogger, I., & Seidel, T. (2014). Understanding video as a tool for teacher education: Investigating instructional strategies to promote reflection. Instructional Science, 42(3), 443–463.
Carter, K., Cushing, K., Sabers, D., Stein, R., & Berliner, D. C. (1988). Expert–novice differences in perceiving and processing visual classroom information. Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3), 25–31.
Choy, D., Wong, A. F. L., Lim, K. M., & Chong, S. (2013). Beginning teachers’ perceptions of their pedagogical knowledge and skills in teaching: A three year study. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(5), 68–79.
Cortina, K. S., Miller, K. F., McKenzie, R., & Epstein, A. (2015). Where low and high inference data converge: Validation of CLASS assessment of mathematics instruction using mobile eye tracking with expert and novice teachers. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(2), 389–403.
Dang, J., King, K. M., & Inzlicht, M. (2020). Why are self-report and behavioral measures weakly correlated? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(4), 267–269.
de Lange, F. P., Heilbron, M., & Kok, P. (2018). How do expectations shape perception? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22(9), 764–779.
Goodfellow, I., Bengio, Y., & Courville, A. (2016). Deep Learning. Retrieved from http://www.deeplearningbook.org/.
Goodwin, C. (1994). Professional vision. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 606–633.
Hedge, C., Powell, G., & Sumner, P. (2018). The reliability paradox: Why robust cognitive tasks do not produce reliable individual differences. Behavior Research Methods, 50(3), 1166–1186.
Jacobs, V. R. (2017). Complexities in measuring teacher noticing: Commentary. In E. O. Schack, M. H. Fisher, & J. A. Wilhelm (Eds.), Teacher noticing: Bridging and broadening perspectives, contexts, and frameworks (pp. 273–279). Berlin: Springer International Publishing.
Jacobs, V. R., Lamb, L. L. C., & Philipp, R. A. (2010). Professional noticing of children’s mathematical thinking. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(2), 169–202.
Jeschke, C., Kuhn, C., Lindmeier, A., Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, O., Saas, H., & Heinze, A. (2019). Performance assessment to investigate the domain specificity of instructional skills among pre-service and in-service teachers of mathematics and economics. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 538–550.
Karsenty, R., & Sherin, M. G. (2017). Video as a catalyst for mathematics teachers’ professional growth. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 20(5), 409–413.
Kersting, N. B., Givvin, K. B., Thompson, B., Santagata, R., & Stigler, J. (2012). Developing measures of usable knowledge: Teachers’ analyses of mathematics classroom videos predict teaching quality and student learning. American Educational Research Journal, 49(3), 568–590. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831212437853.
Kersting, N. B., Smith, J. E., Vezino, B., Chen, M.-K., Wood, M. B., & Stigler, J. W. (2020). Exploring the affordances of Bayesian networks for modeling usable knowledge and knowledge use in teaching. ZDM Mathematics Education, 52, 207–218.
Lavie, N., Hirst, A., De Fockert, J. W., & Viding, E. (2004). Load theory of selective attention and cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(3), 339–354.
Nosek, B. A., Hawkins, C. B., & Frazier, R. S. (2011). Implicit social cognition: From measures to mechanisms. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(4), 152–159.
Peterson, M. A., & Salvagio, E. (2008). Inhibitory competition in figure-ground perception: Context and convexity. Journal of Vision, 8(16), 1–13.
Russ, R. S., Sherin, B. L., & Sherin, M. G. (2016). What constitutes teacher learning? In D. Gitomer (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 391–438). Washington, DC: AERA.
Santagata, R., & Guarino, J. (2011). Using video to teach future teachers to learn from teaching. ZDM International Journal on Mathematics Education, 43(1), 133–145.
Santagata, R., & Yeh, C. (2016). The role of perception, interpretation, and decision making in the development of beginning teachers’ competence. ZDM International Journal on Mathematics Education, 48(1–2), 153–165.
Scrucca, L., Fop, M., Murphy, T. B., & Raftery, A. E. (2016). mclust 5: Clustering, classification and density estimation using gaussian finite mixture models. The R Journal, 8(1), 289–317.
Sherin, M. G. (2007). The development of teachers’ professional vision in video clubs. In R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron, & S. Derry (Eds.), Video research in the learning sciences (pp. 383–395). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sherin, B., & Star, J. R. (2011). Reflections on the study of teacher noticing. In M. Sherin, V. Jacobs, & R. Phillips (Eds.), Mathematics teacher noticing seeing through teachers’ eyes (pp. 66–78). New York: Routledge.
Sherin, M. G., Jacobs, V. R., & Philipp, R. A. (2011a). Situating the study of teacher noticing. In M. G. Sherin, V. R. Jacobs, & R. A. Philipp (Eds.), Mathematics teacher noticing seeing through teachers’ eyes (pp. 3–13). New York, NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203832714.
Sherin, M. G., Russ, R. S., & Colestock, A. A. (2011b). Accessing mathematics teachers’ in-the-moment noticing. In M. Sherin, V. Jacobs, & R. Philipp (Eds.), Mathematics teacher noticing seeing through teachers’ eyes (pp. 79–94). New York: Routledge.
Stockero, S. L., & Rupnow, R. L. (2017). Measuring noticing within complex mathematics classroom interactions. Teacher noticing: Bridging and broadening perspectives, contexts, and frameworks (pp. 281–301). Berlin: Springer International Publishing.
van den Bogert, N., van Bruggen, J., Kostons, D., & Jochems, W. (2014). First steps into understanding teachers’ visual perception of classroom events. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37, 208–216.
van Es, E. A., & Sherin, M. G. (2008). Mathematics teachers’ “learning to notice” in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2), 244–276.
Wolff, C. E., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2017). See and tell: Differences between expert and novice teachers’ interpretations of problematic classroom management events. Teaching and Teacher Education, 66, 295–308.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant no. 1720866. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
About this article
Cite this article
Kersting, N.B., Smith, J.E. & Vezino, B. Using authentic video clips of classroom instruction to capture teachers’ moment-to-moment perceiving as knowledge-filtered noticing. ZDM Mathematics Education 53, 109–118 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-020-01201-6