, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 81–94 | Cite as

Characteristics of teaching and learning single-digit whole number multiplication in china: the case of the nine-times table

  • Shu Zhang
  • Yiming CaoEmail author
  • Lidong Wang
  • Xinlian Li
Original Article


This study investigates the teaching and learning of single-digit whole number multiplication in China. Analysis of data from documents, classroom teaching, and semi-structured interviews revealed three salient characteristics of emphasizing oral calculation, calculation speed, and understanding across standards, textbook and classroom practices. It also showed how mathematics teachers enact these features in their teaching practice to help students develop their computational skills. The study particularly elaborates the role played by the nine-times table, or Chengfa Kou Jue Table (CKJ Table) in teaching practices, as well as how teachers treat memorization of CKJ and how understanding of operations contributes to their better understanding the relationship between the two in the teaching process.


Multiplication Mathematics curriculum Teaching Nine-times table 


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Copyright information

© FIZ Karlsruhe 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shu Zhang
    • 1
  • Yiming Cao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lidong Wang
    • 2
  • Xinlian Li
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Mathematical SciencesBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment toward Basic Education QualityBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of Mathematics and StatisticsSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina

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