ZDM

, Volume 48, Issue 1–2, pp 153–165 | Cite as

The role of perception, interpretation, and decision making in the development of beginning teachers’ competence

Original Article

Abstract

This study investigates beginning US elementary teachers’ competence for teaching mathematics and its development during teacher preparation and into the first 2 years of full-time teaching. Data are drawn from three longitudinal case studies and include the classroom video analysis survey, classroom observations and interviews about teachers’ instructional decisions, and whole-day shadowing. A multi-case study design was used to examine the processes of perception, interpretation, and decision making in participants’ comments on video clips of teaching episodes and in reflections about their own teaching. Findings support the central role of these processes in teacher competence and the generative power of reflections revolving around student thinking and tools, such as classroom discourse and visuals. Teachers’ communities also played an important role in teachers’ decision making. A model of teacher competence from a situated perspective is proposed and the classroom video assessment is discussed as a measure of teacher competence in context.

Keywords

Teacher competence Video Video analysis Beginning teachers Longitudinal study Mathematics teaching 

References

  1. Ball, D. L., Thames, M. H., & Phelps, G. (2008). Content knowledge for teaching: What makes it special? Journal of Teacher Education, 59, 398–407.Google Scholar
  2. Blömeke, S., Gustafsson, J. E., & Shavelson, R. (2015a). Beyond dichotomies: Viewing competence as a continuum. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 223(1), 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blömeke, S., Hoth, J., Döhrmann, M., Busse, A., Kaiser, G., & König, J. (2015b). Teacher change during induction: development of beginning primary teachers’ knowledge, beliefs and performance. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(2), 287–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blömeke, S., Hsieh, F., Kaiser, G., & Schmidt, W. H. (Eds.). (2014). International perspectives on teacher knowledge, beliefs and opportunities to learn. TEDS-M results. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Blömeke, S., Kaiser, G., & Lehmann, R. (2010). TEDS-M 2008. In Professionelle Kompetenz und Lerngelegenheiten angehender Mathematiklehrkräfte für die Sekundarstufe I im internationalen Vergleich. München: Waxman.Google Scholar
  6. Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borko, H., Roberts, S. A., & Shavelson, R. (2008). Teachers’ decision making: From Alan J. Bishop to today. In P. Clarkson & N. Presmeg (Eds.), Critical issues in mathematics education: Major contributions of Alan Bishop (pp. 37–67). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., Franke, M. L., Levi, L., & Empson, S. B. (1999). Children’s mathematics: Cognitively guided instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  9. Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood. NBER Working Paper 17699.Google Scholar
  10. Chi, M. T. H. (2011). Theoretical Perspectives, Methodological Approaches, and Trends in the Study of Expertise. In Y. Li & G. Kaiser (Eds.), Expertise in mathematics instruction: an international perspective (pp. 17–39). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. C. (2007). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. European Mathematical Society—Education Committee. (2012). It is necessary that teachers are mathematically proficient, but is it sufficient? Solid findings in mathematics education on teacher knowledge. Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society, 83, 46–50.Google Scholar
  13. Fives, H., & Buehl, M. M. (2012). Spring cleaning for the ‘‘messy’’ construct of teachers’ beliefs: What are they? Which have been examined? What can they tell us? In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (pp. 471–499). Washington, DC: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franke, M. L., Carpenter, T. P., Levi, L., & Fennema, E. (2001). Capturing teachers’ generative change: A follow-up study of professional development in mathematics. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 653–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1968). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.Google Scholar
  16. Gutiérrez, R. (2013). The sociopolitical turn in mathematics education. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44, 37–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hiebert, J., Morris, A. K., Berk, D., & Jansen, A. (2007). Preparing teachers to learn from teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 58, 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hiebert, J., Stigler, J. W., Jacobs, J. K., Givvin, K. B., Garnier, H., Smith, M., et al. (2005). Mathematics teaching in the United States today (and tomorrow): Results from the TIMSS 1999 video study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(2), 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hill, H. C., Blunck, M. L., Charalambos, Y. C., Lewis, J. M., Phelps, G. C., Sleep, L., & Ball, D. L. (2008). Mathematical knowledge for teaching and the mathematical quality of instruction: An exploratory study. Cognition and Instruction, 26(4), 430–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill, H. C., Rowan, B., & Ball, D. L. (2005). Effects of teachers’ knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 371–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacobs, V. R., Lamb, L. C., Philipp, R. A., & Schappelle, B. P. (2011). Deciding how to respond on the basis of children’s understandings. In M. G. Sherin, V. R. Jacobs, & R. A. Philipp (Eds.), Mathematics teacher noticing: Seeing through teachers’ eyes (pp. 97–116). New York: Routledge. (in press).Google Scholar
  22. Jaworski, B. (2006). Theory and practice in mathematics teaching development: Critical inquiry as a mode of learning in teaching. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9(2), 187–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaiser, G., Blömeke, S., Busse, A., Döhrmann, M. & König, J. (2014). Professional knowledge of (prospective) mathematics teachers—its structure and its development. In P. Liljedahl, C. Nicol, S. Oesterle & Dr. Allan (Eds.), Proceedings of the joint meeting of PME 38 and PME-NA 36, Vol. 1 (pp. 35–50). Vancouver: PME.Google Scholar
  24. Kaiser, G., Busse, A., Hoth, J., König, J., & Blömeke, S. (2015). About the complexities of video-based assessments: Theoretical and methodological approaches to overcoming shortcomings of research on teachers’ competence. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(2), 369–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kazemi, E., & Hubbard, A. (2008). New directions for the design and study of professional development attending to the coevolution of teachers’ participation across contexts. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(5), 428–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kersting, N. (2008). Using video clips as item prompts to measure teachers’ knowledge of teaching mathematics. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 845–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kersting, N., Givvin, K., Thompson, B., Santagata, R., & Stigler, J. (2012). Measuring usable knowledge: Teachers’ analyses of mathematics classroom videos predict teaching quality and student learning. American Education Research Journal, 49(3), 568–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. König, J., Blömeke, S., & Kaiser, G. (2015). Early career mathematics teachers’ general pedagogical knowledge and skills: Do teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions make a difference? International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(2), 331–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Putnam, R. T., & Borko, H. (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 29(1), 4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Santagata, R. (2005) Practices and beliefs in mistake-handling activities: a video study of Italian and U.S. mathematics lessons. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 491–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Santagata, R. (2009). Designing video-based professional development for mathematics teachers in low-performing schools. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 38–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Santagata, R., & Guarino, J. (2011). Using video to teach future teachers to learn from teaching. ZDM - The International Journal of Mathematics Education, 43(1), 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Santagata, R., Zannoni, C., & Stigler, J. W. (2007). The role of lesson analysis in pre-service teacher education: An empirical investigation of teacher learning from a virtual video-based field experience. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 10(2), 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sherin, M. G., Jacobs, V. R., & Philipp, R. A. (Eds.). (2011). Mathematics teacher noticing: Seeing through teachers’ eyes. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Sherin, M. G., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Effects of video club participation on teachers’ professional vision. Journal of Teacher Education, 60, 20–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Star, J. R., & Strickland, S. K. (2008). Learning to observe: using video to improve preservice mathematics teachers’ ability to notice. Journal of Mathematics Teaching Education, 11, 107–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stigler, J.W., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Thompson, A. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and conceptions. In D. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 127–146). New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. van Es, E. A. (2011). A framework for learning to notice student thinking. In M. G. Sherin, V. Jacobs, & R. Philipp (Eds.), Mathematics teacher noticing: Seeing through teachers’ eyes (pp. 134–151). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Yeh, C., & Santagata, R. (2014). Pre-service teachers’ learning to generate evidence-based hypotheses about the impact of mathematics teaching on learning. Journal of Teacher Education,. doi:10.1177/0022487114549470.Google Scholar
  43. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© FIZ Karlsruhe 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations