Chance by design: devising an introductory probability module for implementation at scale in English early-secondary education
- 543 Downloads
This paper reports the design of an introductory probability module intended for implementation at scale within the English educational system. It forms part of the Effecting Principled Improvement in STEM Education (epiSTEMe) programme of redesign research aimed at improving the teaching and learning of mathematics and science at early-secondary level. The approach taken by the module is informed by the research literatures on effective teaching (with a particular emphasis on blending teaching components and exploiting dialogic discussion) and probabilistic thinking (with a particular emphasis on triangulating epistemic approaches and deconstructing fallacious reasoning). Recognising that scalable innovation must take account of the current state and established norms of the educational system, module development was informed by such considerations. Advice and feedback from classroom teachers, as well as observation and recording of their lesson implementations, provided a basis for assessing the viability of proposed features of the module, and the adaptation required of teachers, so that guidance materials and professional development could be framed appropriately.
KeywordsDesign research Dialogic teaching Early-secondary school England Improvement at scale Pedagogical design Teaching probability
Thanks are due to the Economic and Social Research Council which provided funding for the epiSTEMe project (RES-179-25-0003), to our colleagues in the epiSTEMe research team—Christine Howe, Stefanie Luthman, Neil Mercer, Fran Riga and Keith Taber—and to the teachers who generously volunteered to review and trial versions of this module.
- Alexander, R. (2008). Towards dialogic teaching: Rethinking classroom talk (4th ed.). York: Dialogos.Google Scholar
- Borovcnik, M., & Peard, R. (1996). Probability. In A. Bishop, et al. (Eds.), International handbook of mathematics education (pp. 239–288). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
- Department for Education and Employment (DfEE). (2001). Framework for teaching mathematics: Years 7, 8 and 9. London: DfEE.Google Scholar
- Franke, M., Kazemi, E., & Battey, D. (2007). Mathematics teaching and classroom practice. In F. Lester (Ed.), Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 225–356). Charlotte, NC: IAP.Google Scholar
- Konold, C., & Kazak, S. (2008). Reconnecting data and chance. Technology Innovations in Statistics Education, 2(1).Google Scholar
- Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted). (2008). Mathematics: Understanding the score. London: Ofsted.Google Scholar
- Prestage, S., & Perks, P. (2008). HMI Ofsted report for mathematics 2008, or why teenagers are maths dunces. Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 28(3), 96–101.Google Scholar
- Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA). (1999). Mathematics in the National Curriculum. London: QCA.Google Scholar
- Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA). (2007). Mathematics: Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment targets. London: QCA.Google Scholar
- Ruthven, K. (2011a). Research-informed pedagogical innovation at scale in school mathematics and science education. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association, London, 6–8 September 2011. http://www.educ.cam.ac.uk/people/staff/ruthven/RuthvenBERA11paper.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2011.
- Ruthven, K. (2011b). Using international study series and meta-analytic research syntheses to scope pedagogical development aimed at improving student attitude and achievement in school mathematics and science. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(2), 419–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ruthven, K., Hofmann, R., & Mercer, N. (2011). A dialogic approach to plenary problem synthesis. Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 4, 81–88.Google Scholar
- Ruthven, K., Howe, C., Mercer, N., Taber, K., Luthman, S., Hofmann, R., et al. (2010). Effecting Principled Improvement in STEM Education: Research-based pedagogical development for student engagement and learning in early secondary-school physical science and mathematics. Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 30(1), 191–198.Google Scholar