Linear forms and quadratic uniformity for functions on ℤ N

Abstract

A very useful fact in additive combinatorics is that analytic expressions that can be used to count the number of structures of various kinds in subsets of Abelian groups are robust under quasirandom perturbations, and moreover that quasirandomness can often be measured by means of certain easily described norms, known as uniformity norms. However, determining which uniformity norms work for which structures turns out to be a surprisingly hard question. In [GW10a] and [GW10b], [GW10c], we gave a complete answer to this question for groups of the form G = F n p , provided p is not too small. In ℤ N , substantial extra difficulties arise, of which the most important is that an “inverse theorem” even for the uniformity norm \({\left\| \cdot \right\|_{{U^3}}}\) requires a more sophisticated “local” formulation. When N is prime, ℤ N is not rich in subgroups, so one must use regular Bohr neighbourhoods instead. In this paper, we prove the first non-trivial case of the main conjecture from [GW10a]. Moreover, we obtain a doubly exponential bound.

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Correspondence to W. T. Gowers.

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Gowers, W.T., Wolf, J. Linear forms and quadratic uniformity for functions on ℤ N . JAMA 115, 121–186 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11854-011-0026-7

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Keywords

  • Quadratic Form
  • Linear Form
  • Bilinear Form
  • Phase Function
  • Triangle Inequality