Skip to main content

Integrated coastal zone management to protect the Sarawak shoreline

Abstract

Coastal erosion along Sarawak shoreline is getting serious in recent years due to the impact of climate change and global warming. Strong waves had washed away the land along the shore or beach and thus threatens the infrastructures that were constructed along Sarawak shoreline. Department of Irrigation and Drainage had adopted many methods to protect the shoreline including seawalls, breakwaters, geotextile tubes, concrete mass Labuan blocks, amour rocks and etc. The cheapest and most economic protection method is using armour rock. Besides, amour rock was found to be strong, durable, long-lasting, able to absorb and dissipate the waves before hitting on the shore. However, appropriate size of amour rocks to protect the shore is unknown. Therefore, this research is carried out to determine the appropriate armour rocks sizes for protecting the shoreline against the waves along Sarawak shoreline. The design methodologies are including determination of tidal levels, design wind speed, wind set-up, wave period, sea level rise, wave set-up, breaker height and lastly design armour rock sizes range. Shoreline Protection Manual and Hudson’s formula were adopted in this research to determine the appropriate sizes range of armour rocks. The study area was subdivided into 7 regions. Results revealed that southern part of Sarawak shorelines requires larger armour rock sizes compared to the northern region. The nominal size ranges of armour rocks for regions 1 and 2 are found to be 2112 mm, 1734 mm for region 3, and 1173 mm for regions 4, 5, 6 and 7. Results also revealed that the required armour rock sizes increase with the increment of Mean High Water Spring, nearshore slope gradients and structure slope. Besides, results also concluded that smaller amours rocks is sufficient to react against smaller waves, while bigger waves required bigger rocks for protecting the shoreline.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Amrutha M, Kumar V (2017) Characteristics of high monsoon wind-waves observed at multiple stations in the eastern Arabian Sea. J Ocean Sci 1–30. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2017-84

  2. Bradbury AP, Allsop NWH, Latham JP, Mannion MB, Poole AB (1998) Rock armour for rubble mound breakwaters, seawalls, and revetments: recent progress. Hydraul Res 1–100

  3. Camfield FE (1988) Technology transfer—the shore protection manual. J Coast Res 4(3):335–338

    Google Scholar 

  4. Davidson MA, O’Hare TJ, George KJ (2008) Tidal modulation of incident wave heights:fact or friction? J Coastal Res 24(2A):151–159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) (2015) About NCES—intrdocution, National Coastal Erosion Study. Viewed 30 April 2021. http://nces.water.gov.my/nces/About

  6. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) (2017a) Coastal management. Viewed 30 April 2021. https://www.water.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/1296?mid=305

  7. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) (2017b) Sand-filled Geotextile Tubes in Johor. Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, viewed 17 April 2019. https://www.water.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/609

  8. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) (2017c) Coastal erosion control project at Tanjung Aru. W. Persekutuan Labuan. In: Coastal Erosion Control Projects, Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, viewed 13 April 2020. https://www.water.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/615?mid=292

  9. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) (2017d) Coastal erosion control project from Parit Rabu to Tg. Tohor, Sri Menanti District, Muar, Johor. In: Coastal Erosion Control Projects, Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, viewed 8 April 2020. https://www.water.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/615?mid=292

  10. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) (2017e) Coastal erosion control project from Singkir Laut, Yan, Kedah. In: Coastal Erosion Control Projects, Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, viewed 13 April 2019. https://www.water.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/615?mid=292

  11. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) (2017f) Coastal Erosion Control Projects. Department of Irrigation and Drainage Ministry of Environment and Water. Viewed 30 April 2021. https://www.water.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/615?mid=292

  12. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) (2017g) Malaysian coastline. In: Coastal management—activities, Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources, viewed 30 March 2012. https://www.water.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/515?mid=290

  13. Depledge M, Lovell R, Wheeler B, Morrissey K, White M, Felming L (2017) Future of the sea: health and wellbeing of coastal communities. Health Wellbeing Coast Communities 1:1–27

    Google Scholar 

  14. Hassan MI, Rahmat NH (2016) The effect of coastline changes to local community’s social-economic. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spatial Inf Sci 42:25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Jones RJ, Allsop NWH (1994) Rock armoured beach control structures on steep beaches. Coast Eng 1157–1168. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784400890.085

  16. JPS coastal design 1: design solution for coastal erosion problem, 1 ed. (2006). Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Kuala Lumpur

  17. Kueh SM, Kuok KK (2018) Forecasting long term precipitation using Cuckoo search optimization neural network models. Environ Eng Manag J (EEMJ) 17(6):1283–1291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Kuok KK, Harun S, Shamsuddin SM, Chiu PC (2010) Evaluation of daily rainfall-runoff model using multilayer perceptron and particle swarm optimization feed forward neural networks. J Environ Hydrol 18(10):1–16

    Google Scholar 

  19. Kuok KK, Harun S, Chan CP (2011) Hourly runoff forecast at different leadtime for a small watershed using artificial neural networks. Int J Adv Soft Comput Appl 3(1):68–86

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kuok KK, Ziet LZ, PoChan C (2013) Technical note Flood map development by coupling satellite maps and three-dimensional drafting software: case study of the Sarawak River Basin. Water SA 39(1):175–182

    Google Scholar 

  21. Latham JP, Lienhart D, Dupray S (2006) Rock quality, durability and service life prediction of armourstone. Eng Geol 87:122–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Long SM (2014) Sarawak coastal biodiversity: a current status. Kuroshio Sci 8(1):71–84

    Google Scholar 

  23. Map State of Sarawak (2019) [image], Wonderful Malaysia, viewed 5 October 2019. http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/map-state-sarawak-malaysia.htm

  24. Motamedi S (2016) Design, construction and monitoring of eco-friendly revetments for coastal protection. PhD thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur

  25. Raj JK, Yusoff I, Abdullah WH (2007) Past and present-day coastal changes between Kuala Sungai Besar and Kuala Besar, Kelantan Darul Naim. Geol Soc Malaysia Bull 53:15–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Senevirathna EMTK, Edirisooriya KVD, Uluwaduge SP, Wijerathna KBCA (2018) Analysis of causes and effects of coastal erosion and environmental degradation in southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka special reference to Unawatuna coastal area. Procedia Eng 212:1011–1017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Selamat SN, Maulud KNA, Mohd FA, Rahman AA, Zainal MK, Wahid MAA, Awang NA (2019) Multi method analysis for identifying the shoreline erosion during northeast monsoon season. J Sustain Sci Manag 14(3):43–54

    Google Scholar 

  28. Shore protection manual volume 1 (1984) U.S Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C.

  29. Shore protection manual volume 2 (1984) U.S Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C.

  30. Tan CL (2014) Coastal engineering prevents the sea from eating up Terengganu lands. Viewed 30 April 2021. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/environment/2014/09/29/saving-the-terengganu-coastline-from-erosion

  31. Topal TTB, Acir O (2004) Quality assessment of armourstone for a rubble mound breakwater (Sinop, Turkey). Environ Geol 46(6):905–913

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. U.S. Amry Corps of Engineers (2002) The coastal engineering manual. Coast Eng Manual, no.4, pp. 1–4

  33. Wilson TV (2007) How surfing works breaking waves [Online]. Available: https://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/water-sports/surfing6.htm

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to King Kuok Kuok.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kuok, K.K., Tay, Y.Y.S. & Chiu, P.C. Integrated coastal zone management to protect the Sarawak shoreline. J Coast Conserv 25, 48 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-021-00835-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)
  • Shoreline protection
  • Armour rocks
  • Hudson’s formula