Temperature, salinity and water-age variations in a tidal creek network, Bushehr Port, Iran

  • Seyed Taleb Hosseini
  • Vahid Chegini
  • Masoud Sadrinasab
  • Seyed Mostafa Siadatmousavi


The spatio-temporal variability of temperature and salinity was studied for a creek network and its adjacent coastal waters along the northwestern coast of the Persian Gulf during warm and cold months. Salinity variations and tidal fluctuations were found to be out of phase throughout the creek. Temperature variations at the creek were exhibit a direct correlation with tidal fluctuations during cold months and were inversely related during warm months. The creek water was colder (warmer) than offshore water during the cold (warm) season. The salinity values observed inside this inverse estuary were higher during the warm season than the corresponding values during the cold season due to a change in evaporation rates; while the open water salinity had an opposite pattern. Using salinity as a tracer, the water-age (WA) was calculated, which shows almost linear increase from the mouth to the head. The maximum WA increases from ~10 days in winter to ~30 days in summer due to the corresponding increase in longitudinal salinity gradient. Based on the calculated non-dimensional Peclet number, the diffusion process is more rapid than the advection process in this water body, especially during the cold season.


Temperature Salinity Water-age Peclet number Inverse estuary Persian gulf 



This work was supported by the Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science (INIOAS) at the Persian Gulf Centre for Oceanography. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Applied Meteorology Research Center of Bushehr (AMRCB) to provide the meteorological data. The Bushehr Province Department of Ports and Maritime Organization (BPDPMO) is thanked for providing the vessel and their help for the field operations. The authors thank valuable comments made on an earlier draft from Dr. Felix Jose, Florida Gulf Coast University and from Mrs. Amy Spaziany, Spaziani Geoservices, LLC.


  1. Adkins JF, Boyle EA (1997) Changing atmospheric Δ14C and the record of deep water paleoventilation ages. Paleoceanography 12:337–344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson LG, Tanhua T, Björk G, Hjalmarsson S, Jones EP, Jutterström S, Rudels B, Swift JH, Wåhlstöm I (2010) Arctic Ocean shelf-basin interaction: an active continental shelf CO2 pump and its impact on the degree of calciumcarbonate solubility. Deep Sea Res I 57:869–879. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arega F, Badr AW (2010) Numerical age and residence-time mapping for a small tidal creek: case study. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 136(4):226–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banas N, Hickey B (2005) Mapping exchange and residence time in a model of Willapa Bay, Washington, a branching, macrotidal estuary Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 110Google Scholar
  5. Blaise S, De Brye B, De Brauwere A, Deleersnijder E, Delhez EJ, Comblen R (2010) Capturing the residence time boundary layer—application to the Scheldt estuary. Ocean Dyn 60:535–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolin B, Rodhe H (1973) A note on the concepts of age distribution and transit time in natural reservoirs. Tellus 25:58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Delhez ÉJ, Deleersnijder É (2006) The boundary layer of the residence time field. Ocean Dyn 56:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dronkers J, Zimmerman J (1982) Some principles of mixing in tidal lagoons Oceanologica Acta, Special issueGoogle Scholar
  9. Du J, Shen J (2016) Water residence time in Chesapeake Bay for 1980–2012. J Mar Syst 164:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freije R et al. (2008) Water chemistry and nutrients of the Bahía Blanca Estuary Perspectives on integrated coastal zone Management in South America:241–254Google Scholar
  11. Hansell DA, Kadko D, Bates NR (2004) Degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean. Science 304:858–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hardisty J (2008) Estuaries: monitoring and modeling the physical system. John Wiley & Sons,Google Scholar
  13. Hassanzadeh S, Kiasatpour A, Hosseinibalam F (2007) Sea-level response to atmospheric forcing along the north coast of Persian gulf. Meteorog Atmos Phys 95:223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hearn CJ, Robson BJ (2002) On the effects of wind and tides on the hydrodynamics of a shallow Mediterranean estuary. Cont Shelf Res 22:2655–2672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hetzel Y, Pattiaratchi C, Lowe R (2013) Intermittent dense water outflows under variable tidal forcing in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Cont Shelf Res 66:36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hosseini ST, Chegini V, Sadrinasab M, Siadatmousavi SM, Yari S (2016) Tidal asymmetry in a tidal creek with mixed mainly semidiurnal tide, Bushehr port, Persian gulf. Ocean Science Journal 51:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hosseinibalam F, Hassanzadeh S, Kiasatpour A (2007) Interannual variability and seasonal contribution of thermal expansion to sea level in the Persian Gulf. Deep-Sea Res I Oceanogr Res Pap 54:1474–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kershaw PJ, Heldal HE, Mork KA, Rudjord AL (2004) Variability in the supply, distribution and transport of the transient tracer 99Tc in the NE Atlantic. J Mar Syst 44:55–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kirchner JW, Feng X, Neal C (2001) Catchment-scale advection and dispersion as a mechanism for fractal scaling in stream tracer concentrations. J Hydrol 254:82–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Largier J (2010) Low-inflow estuaries: hypersaline, inverse and thermal scenarios Contemporary issues in estuarine physics:247–272Google Scholar
  21. Largier J, Hollibaugh JT, Smith S (1997) Seasonally hypersaline estuaries in Mediterranean-climate regions. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 45:789–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu Z, Wang H, Guo X, Wang Q, Gao H (2012) The age of Yellow River water in the Bohai Sea Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 117Google Scholar
  23. Lucas L (2010) Implications of estuarine transport for water quality Contemporary issues in estuarine physics:273–303Google Scholar
  24. Meyers SD, Luther ME (2008) A numerical simulation of residual circulation in Tampa Bay. Part II: Lagrangian residence time. Estuar Coasts 31:815–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Monsen NE, Cloern JE, Lucas LV, Monismith SG (2002) A comment on the use of flushing time, residence time, and age as transport time scales. Limnol Oceanogr 47:1545–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mudge SM, Icely JD, Newton A (2008) Residence times in a hypersaline lagoon: using salinity as a tracer. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 77:278–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nahas EL, Pattiaratchi CB, Ivey GN (2005) Processes controlling the position of frontal systems in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 65:463–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Naik A, Kanhere V, Vaidyaraman P (1993) Effect of salinity on siltation in the cochin port. Paper presented at the international conference on coastal and port engineering in developing countries, Colombo, Sri Lanka,Google Scholar
  29. Peeters F, Kipfer R, Achermann D, Hofer M, Aeschbach-Hertig W, Beyerle U, Imboden DM, Rozanski K, Fröhlich K (2000) Analysis of deep-water exchange in the Caspian Sea based on environmental tracers. Deep-Sea Res I Oceanogr Res Pap 47:621–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rattner BA, Heath AG (2003) Environmental factors affecting contaminant toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of poisons McGraw Hill, New York:679–700Google Scholar
  31. Reynolds RM (1993) Physical oceanography of the Gulf, strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman—results from the Mt Mitchell expedition. Mar Pollut Bull 27:35–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roberts Jr MH, Hale RC (2001) Coastal and estuarine risk assessment. CRC Press,Google Scholar
  33. ROPME (2003) State of the marine environment report 2003 KuwaitGoogle Scholar
  34. Rynne P, Reniers A, van de Kreeke J, MacMahan J (2016) The effect of tidal exchange on residence time in a coastal embayment. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 172:108–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sadrinasab M, Kämpf J (2004) Three-dimensional flushing times of the Persian Gulf Geophys Res Lett 31Google Scholar
  36. Sheldon JE, Alber M (2002) A comparison of residence time calculations using simple compartment models of the Altamaha River estuary, Georgia. Estuaries 25:1304–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Soballe D, Kimmel B (1987) A large-scale comparison of factors influencing phytoplankton abundance in rivers, lakes, and impoundments. Ecology 68:1943–1954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Takeoka H (1984) Fundamental concepts of exchange and transport time scales in a coastal sea. Cont Shelf Res 3:311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tartinville B, Deleersnijder E, Rancher J (1997) The water residence time in the Mururoa atoll lagoon: sensitivity analysis of a three-dimensional model. Coral Reefs 16:193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Thoppil PG, Hogan PJ (2010) Persian gulf response to a wintertime shamal wind event. Deep-Sea Res I Oceanogr Res Pap 57:946–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Valle-Levinson A (2010) Contemporary issues in estuarine physics. Cambridge University Press,Google Scholar
  42. Van Rijn L (2014) Harbour siltation and control measuresGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang P-C, Zhang X-Q, Qian Z, Shi M-Z (2013) Numerical study of water age influenced by tide and runoff in Daliaohe estuary in China. J Hydrodyn Ser B 25:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Warner JC, Geyer WR, Arango HG (2010) Using a composite grid approach in a complex coastal domain to estimate estuarine residence time. Comput Geosci 36:921–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang WG, Wilkin JL, Schofield OM (2010) Simulation of water age and residence time in New York bight. J Phys Oceanogr 40:965–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zimmerman JTF (1976) Mixing and flushing of tidal embayments in the western Dutch Wadden Sea part I: distribution of salinity and calculation of mixing time scales. Neth J Sea Res 10:149–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zimmerman J (1981) The flushing of well-mixed tidal [coastal] lagoons and its seasonal fluctuation UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science (UNESCO) no 33Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyed Taleb Hosseini
    • 1
  • Vahid Chegini
    • 1
  • Masoud Sadrinasab
    • 2
  • Seyed Mostafa Siadatmousavi
    • 3
  1. 1.Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Khoramshahr University of Marine Science & TechnologyKhoramshahrIran
  3. 3.Iran University of Science &TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations