Journal of Coastal Conservation

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 333–345 | Cite as

Effect factors and classifications of planform geometry of arc-shaped beaches

Article

Abstract

Using the principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis, 10 factors about coastal plain shape and hydrodynamics of 47 arc-shaped beaches in South China were analyzed, aiming to study the influencing factors and classification spectrum of arc-shaped beach configurations. The results show that: (1) the planform geometry of South China arc-shaped coast is mainly controlled by antecedent geologic conditions (with exception of bay orientation), hydrodynamic conditions (wave and tidal range) and sediment supply; (2) the arc-shaped beaches in South China can be divided into 4 groups, witheach group having several sub-classifications. The first group is meso- and macrotidal coasts; the second group is wave dominated microtidal beaches; the third group is geological structure controlled large arc-shaped beaches; and the last group represents a unique type of arc-shaped beach; (3) non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis reveals the effects of morphodynamic factors on the coastal shape and the types, which shows the categories are objective. These conclusions will be helpful to the arc-shaped coasts processes research and engineering constructions.

Keywords

Arc-shaped beach Planform geometry Morphodynamic factors Principle component analysis Cluster analysis Non-metric multidimensional scaling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was jointly funded by the National Science Foundation of China under contracts 40806036, 41676079 and Guangdong Ocean University Science Foundation for Young Group under contract C1212157. Our thanks are expressed to Mark Horwitz, from Department of Geology, University of South Florida, for the English review of the manuscript. Thanks to Dr. Zhang Huiling, from Guangdong Ocean University, for his tremendous help in improving this manuscript.

References

  1. Anthony EJ (2008) Sandy beaches and barriers. Develop. Mar Geol 4:159–288Google Scholar
  2. Bishop P, Cowell P (1997) Lithological and drainage network determinants of the character of drowned, embayed coastlines. J Geol 105(6):685–699.  https://doi.org/10.1086/515974 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai F, Cao H, Su X, Xia D (2007) Analysis on morphodynamics of sandy beaches in South China. J Coast Res 23(1):236–246Google Scholar
  4. CCRBC (Compilation Committee of “Records of Bays in China”) (1993a) Records of Bays in China, volume 7, bays in north Hujian. China Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 10–327 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. CCRBC (Compilation Committee of “Records of Bays in China”) (1993b) Records of Bays in China, volume 8, bays in south Hujian. China Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 10–327 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. CCRBC (Compilation Committee of “Records of Bays in China”) (1993c) Records of Bays in China, volume 12, bays in Guangxi. China Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 10–327 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. CEGCZH (Chinese Editorial Group of Coast Zone Hydrology) (1995) Coastal zone hydrology of China. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 132–172 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Dai Z (2004) Application of judgment rules for log-spiral coast to arc-shaped shoreline in South China. J Tropic Ocean 23(3):43–49 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Dai Z, Li C (2004) Coastline configuration and geomorphologic development mode of arc-shaped coast in South China. Acta Geograph Sin 59(5):92–95 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  10. Dai Z, Li C, Wang W (2005) Formation mechanism analysis of arc-shaped sandy coast in South China. J Oceanogr in Taiwan Strait 1:43–48 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  11. Davies JL (1959) Wave refraction and the evolution of shoreline curves. Geogr Stud (Lond) 5(2):1–14Google Scholar
  12. Davies JL (1964) A geomorphic approach to world coastlines. Ann Geomorphol 8:127–142Google Scholar
  13. Ho SK (1971) Crenulate shaped bays. Asian institute tech, master Eng thesis 346Google Scholar
  14. van Houwelingen S, Masselink G, Bullard J (2006) Characteristics and dynamics of multiple intertidal bars, north Lincolnshire, England. Earth Surf Proc Landforms 31(4):428–443.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. van Houwelingen S, Masselink G, Bullard J (2008) Dynamics of multiple intertidal bars over semi-diurnal and lunar tidal cycles, North Lincolnshire, England. Earth Surf Proc Landforms 33(10):1473–1490.  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1616 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hsu JRC, Evans C (1989) Parabolic bay shapes and applications. Proc Inst Civ Eng 87:557–570Google Scholar
  17. Hsu JRC, Silvester R, Xia Y (1987) New characteristics of equilibrium shape bays. Proc 8th austral Conf on coastal. Ocean Eng:140–144Google Scholar
  18. Hsu JRC, Silvester R, Xia Y (1989a) Application of headland control. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 115(3):299–310.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1989)115:3(299) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hsu JRC, Silvester R, Xia Y (1989b) Generalities on static equilibrium bays. Coast Eng 12(4):353–369.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3839(89)90012-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hsu JRC, Silvester R, Xia Y (1989c) Static equilibrium bays: new relationships. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 115(3):285–298.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1989)115:3(285) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang F, Ye C (1995) Ocean hydrology of the islands of Guangdong. Guangdong Science and Technology Press, Guangzhou, pp 10–77 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Iglesias G, Negro V (2001) Planform models for bayed beaches: the influence of breakwaters and stream discharges. In: Allsop W (ed) Breakwaters, coastal structures and coastlines. Thomas Telford, London, pp 284–292Google Scholar
  23. Iglesias G, López I, Castro A, Carballo R (2009a) Neural network modelling of planform geometry of headland-bay beaches. Geomorphology 103(4):577–587.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Iglesias G, López I, Castro A, Carballo R (2009b) Headland-bay beach planform and tidal range: a neural network model. Geomorphology 112(1-2):135–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Inman DL, Nordstrom CF (1971) On the tectonic and morphologic classification of coasts. J Geol 79(1):1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1086/627583 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson DWT, Cooper JAG (2009) Geological control on beach form: accommodation space and contemporary dynamics. J Coast Res SI 56:69–72Google Scholar
  27. Jackson DWT, Cooper JAG, del Rio L (2005) Geological control of beach morphodynamic state. Mar Geol 216(4):297–314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2005.02.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jiao F, Liu K, Mao D (2005) Subjective assessment of car interior sound quality :applicability of nonmetric multidimensional scaling to sound quality research. Acta Acustica 30(6):523–531 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  29. Johnson RA, Wichern DW (2007) Applied multivariate statistical analysis (6th edition). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp 708–710Google Scholar
  30. Klein AHF, Ferreira Ó, Dias JMA, Tessleret MG, Silveira LF, Benedet L, de Menezes JT, de Abreu JGN (2010) Morphodynamics of structurally controlled headland-bay beaches in southeastern Brazil: a review. Coast Eng 57(2):98–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Krumbein WC (1944) Shore processes and beach characteristics. Beach Erosion Board Technical Memorandum No.3, U.S. Army Corps Engineers, Washington, D.C., pp 47Google Scholar
  32. Kruskal JB (1964a) Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis. Psyehometrika 29(1):1–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02289565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kruskal JB (1964b) Nonmetric multidimensional scalina: A numerical method. Psyehometrika 29(2):115–129.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02289694 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lausman R, Klein AHF, Stive MJF (2010a) Uncertainty in the application of the Parabolic Bay shape equation: part 1. Coast Eng 57(2):132–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lausman R, Klein AHF, Stive MJF (2010b) Uncertainty in the application of the Parabolic Bay shape equation: part 1. Coast Eng 57(2):142–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lawley DH, Maxwell AE (1963) Factor analysis as a statistical method. Butterworths, London, p 177Google Scholar
  37. Le Blond PH (1972) On the formation of spiral beaches, in: proc. In: 13th Int Conf coastal Eng, 2, pp 1331–1345Google Scholar
  38. Le Blond PH (1979) An explanation of the logarithmic spiral plan shape of headland bay beaches. J Sediment Petrol 49:1093–1100Google Scholar
  39. Li C (1986) Geomorphological features of bay coast in South China. Acta Geograph Sin 41(4):311–320 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  40. Li Z, Chen Z (2006) Equilibrium shape model of headland-bay and application in South China coasts. J Oceanogra Taiwan Strait 25(1):123–129 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  41. Li Z, Chen Z (2007) The neural network model of equilibrium shape of Headland-Bay. Mar Sci Bulletin 26(3):19–25 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  42. Li H, Cai L, Lin L (2001) Using Hierarchical Clustering and No-metric MDS to Explore Spatial-temporal Variation of Benthic Community at Intertidal in Shenzhen Bay. Journal of Xiamen University (Natural Science) 40(3):735–740 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  43. Liu Y (1994) Neotectonic and Crastal stableness. Science Press, Beijing, pp 108–133 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. Liu C, Gao J (2008) A cognitive study on local high-grade tourist areas (spots) by metropolitan residents based on NMDS approach. Tourism Tribune 23(11):56–63 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  45. Loureiro C, Ferreira Ó, Cooper JAG (2012) Geologically constrained morphological variability and boundary effects on embayed beaches. Mar Geol 329-331:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2012.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Masselink G, Auger N, Russell P, O'Hare T (2007) Short-term morphological change and sediment dynamics in the intertidal zone of a macrotidal beach. Sedimentology 54(1):39–53.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2006.00825.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Masselink G, Austin M, Tinker J, O'Hare T, Russell P (2008a) Cross-shore sediment transport and morphological response on a macrotidal beach with intertidal bar morphology, Truc vert, France. Mar Geol 251(3-4):141–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2008.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Masselink G, Austin M, Tinker J, O'Hare T, Russell P (2008b) Sediment trend models fail to reproduce small-scale sediment transport patterns on an intertidal beach. Sedimentology 55(3):667–687.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2007.00917.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McCormick ME (1990) Equilibrium shoreline response to breakwater. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 116(3):362–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moreno LJ, Kraus NC (1999) Equilibrium shape of Headland-Bay beaches for engineering design //proc coast Sediments’99. ASCE, New York, pp 860–875Google Scholar
  51. Pols LCW, van der Kamp JT, Plomp R (1969) Perceptual and physical space of vowel souds. J Acoust Sos Am 46(2B):458–467.  https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1911711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rea CC, Komar PD (1975) Computer simulation models of hooked beach shoreline configuration. Sediment Petr 866-872Google Scholar
  53. Reichmüth B, Anthony EJ (2008) Seasonal-scale morphological and dynamic characteristics of multiple intertidal bars. Zeitschrift Fur Geomorphologie 52(Suppl. 3):79–90.  https://doi.org/10.1127/0372-8854/2008/0052S3-0079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sanderson PG, Eliot I (1999) Compartmentalisation of beachface sediments along the southwestern coast of Australia. Mar Geol 162(1):145–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(99)00046-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scott T, Masselink G, Russell P (2011) Morphodynamic characteristics and classification of beaches. Mar Geol 286(1–4):1–20Google Scholar
  56. Short AD (2010) Role of geological inheritance in Australian beach morphodynamics. Coast Eng 57(2):92–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Short AD, Masselink G (1999) Embayed and structurally controlled beaches. In: Short AD (ed) Handbook of beach and Shoreface Morphodynamics. Wiley, New York, pp 230–249Google Scholar
  58. Short AD, Woodroffe C (2009) The coast ofAustralia. Cambridge University Press, 302 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Silverster R, Tsuchiya Y, Shibano T (1980) Zeta bays, pocket beaches and headland control// proc coast Eng, Sydney, ASCE, 1306–1319Google Scholar
  60. Silvester R (1960) Stabilization of sedimentary coastlines. Nature 4749:467–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Silvester R (1970a) Coastal defence. Proc Inst Civ Eng 45:677–682Google Scholar
  62. Silvester R (1970b) Growth of crenulate shaped bays to equilibrium. J Waterw Harb Div 96:275–287Google Scholar
  63. Silvester R (1974) Coastal Engineering (Vol.II). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 338Google Scholar
  64. Silvester R, Ho SK (1972) Use of crenulate shaped bays to stabilize coasts. Coast Eng 2:1347–1365Google Scholar
  65. Su J, Yuan Y (2005) Hydrology in China Coastal Sea. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 305–351 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  66. Sun X (2008) Regional oceanography of China seas. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 130–190 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  67. Tan SK, Chiew YM (1994) Analysis of bayed beaches in static equilibrium. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 120(2):145–153.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1994)120:2(145) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wang W (1985) Development of the arc-shaped sandy beach at bays of the crenulate coast of East Guangdong. J Tropic Ocean 5:19–25 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  69. Wong PP (1981) Beach evolution between headland breakwaters. Shore and Beach 49:3–12Google Scholar
  70. Xia Y (1987) Equilibrium shape law of sandy coast. Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute 1987Google Scholar
  71. Xia Y (1988) The curve of the plan outline of sandy bay in Equilibrium//Proceeding of International Symposium on the Coastal Zone, Beijing, 341–352Google Scholar
  72. Yang Z, Tong C, Lu J (2007) Effects of saltmarsh on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in Yangtze estuary. Acta Ecol Sin 27(11):4387–4393 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  73. Yasso WE (1965) Plan geometry of headland bay beaches. J Geol 73(5):702–714.  https://doi.org/10.1086/627111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Yu S (1995) The application of non-metric multidimensional scaling in community class fication. Acta Phytocolog Sin 19(2):128–136 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  75. Yu J, Chen Z (2010) Study of headland-bay sandy coast stability in South China. The Ocean Eng 28(2):110–116 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  76. Yuan J, Zhao H, Liu T (1992) Geomorphodynamic system of coast in South China. Acta Oceanol Sin 14(1):72–82 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  77. Zuur AK, Ieno EN, Smith GM (2007) Analysing ecological data, springer. N Y 199Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ocean Engineering DepartmentGuangdong Ocean UniversityZhanjiangChina
  2. 2.State Oceanic Marine Environmental Monitor Center of Zhuhaithe State Oceanic Administration of ChinaZhuhaiChina

Personalised recommendations