Linking motivational regulation to brand passion in a moderated model of customer gender and age: an organismic integration theory perspective

  • Faheem Gul Gilal
  • Jian Zhang
  • Rukhsana Gul Gilal
  • Naeem Gul Gilal
Original Paper


Prior marketing investigations broadly capture brand passion by linking it to either intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. However, the effects of specific extrinsic motives (i.e., identified, introjected, and external) on the formation of brand passion have been neglected in the marketing literature. Furthermore, whether gender and age can differentiate the effects of different types of motivation on brand passion is entirely unknown. To address these gaps, the present study seeks to deepen our understanding of consumer brand passion by utilizing concepts from Organismic Integration Theory. When intrinsic motivation and the three types of extrinsic motivation (identified, introjected, and external) were assessed, external motivation was found to have the greatest effect on consumer brand passion. The moderation results suggest that intrinsic motivation better captures the brand passion of women than that of men, while external motivation appears to be more salient for men than for women. The moderation of age reveals that external motivation is more capable of capturing the brand passion of older customers, while introjected motivation is more promising for increasing brand passion among young customers. Finally, the authors provide an in-depth discussion of future research opportunities and this study’s limitations and implications for theory and practice.


Intrinsic motivation Identified motivation Introjected motivation External motivation Brand passion Age and gender 

JEL Classification




We gratefully acknowledge the funding received from the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the project numbers are “71771022”; the Ministry of Education of Humanities and Social Science project and the Grant Numbers are “15YJA630099”.

Supplementary material

11846_2018_287_MOESM1_ESM.docx (280 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 280 kb)
11846_2018_287_MOESM2_ESM.docx (280 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 280 kb)
11846_2018_287_MOESM3_ESM.docx (279 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 279 kb)


  1. Aiken LS, West SG, Reno RR (1991) Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions. Sage, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  2. Ailaan A (2017) Pakistan District Education Rankings, Retrieved from Accessed 14 Dec 2017
  3. Albert N, Merunka D (2013) The role of brand love in consumer-brand relationships. J Consum Mark 30(3):258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albert N, Merunka D, Valette-Florence P (2013) Brand passion: antecedents and consequences. J Bus Res 66(7):904–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Back KJ, Lee CK, Stinchfield R (2011) Gambling motivation and passion: a comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers. J Gambl Stud 27(3):355–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baixauli-Soler JS, Belda-Ruiz M, Sanchez-Marin G (2017) An executive hierarchy analysis of stock options: Does gender matter? RMS 11(4):737–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balon S, Lecoq J, Rimé B (2013) Passion and personality: is passionate behaviour a function of personality? Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée 63(1):59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bem SL (1981) Gender schema theory: a cognitive account of sex typing. Psychol Rev 88(4):354–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bendall-Lyon D, Powers TL (2002) The impact of gender differences on change in satisfaction over time. J Consum Mark 19(1):12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Black AE, Deci EL (2000) The effects of instructors’ autonomy support and students’ autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: a self-determination theory perspective. Sci Educ 84(6):740–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blais MR, Sabourin S, Boucher C, Vallerand RJ (1990) Toward a motivational model of couple happiness. J Pers Soc Psychol 59(5):1021–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buerke A, Straatmann T, Lin-Hi N, Müller K (2017) Consumer awareness and sustainability-focused value orientation as motivating factors of responsible consumer behavior. RMS 11(4):959–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charters S, Walker B, Brown A (2016) Passion over pragmatism: the motivation of Australian winery owners. Int J Entrep Small Bus 29(4):512–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coley A, Burgess B (2003) Gender differences in cognitive and affective impulse buying. J Fashion Mark Manag Int J 7(3):282–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cuddy JCA, Crotty S, Chong J, Norton IM (2010) Men as cultural ideals: how culture shapes gender stereotypes. Harvard Business School. Available at: Accessed 1 December 2016
  16. D’Lima GM, Winsler A, Kitsantas A (2014) Ethnic and gender differences in first-year college students’ goal orientation, self-efficacy, and extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. J Educt Res 107(5):341–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deci EL, Ryan RM (1985) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deci EL, Ryan RM (2000) The” what” and” why” of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychol Inq 11(4):227–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deci EL, Ryan RM (2002) Overview of self-determination theory: an organismic dialectical perspective. In: Deci EL, Ryan RM (eds) Handbook of self-determination research. University of Rochester Rochester, NY, pp 3–33Google Scholar
  20. Dittmar H, Beattie J, Friese S (1995) Gender identity and material symbols: objects and decision considerations in impulse purchases. J Econ Psychol 16(3):491–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fabrigar LR, Wegener DT, MacCallum RC, Strahan EJ (1999) Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychol Methods 4(3):272–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fetscherin M, Heinrich D (2015) Consumer brand relationships research: a bibliometric citation meta-analysis. J Bus Res 68(2):380–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fortier MS, Vallerand RJ, Guay F (1995) Academic motivation and school performance: toward a structural model. Contemp Educt Psychol 20(3):257–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frank B, Enkawa T, Schvaneveldt SJ (2014) How do the success factors driving repurchase intent differ between male and female customers? J Acad Mark Sci 42(2):171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gagné M, Deci EL (2005) Self-determination theory and work motivation. J Organ Behav 26(4):331–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gilal FG, Zhang J, Gilal NG, Gilal RG Integrating self-determined needs into the relationship among product design, willingness-to-pay a premium, and word-of-mouth: a cross-cultural gender-specific study. Psychology Research and Behavior Management. (In Press)Google Scholar
  27. Gilal NG, Zhang J, Gilal FG Linking product design to consumer behavior: the moderating role of consumption experience. Psychology Research and Behavior Management. (In Press)Google Scholar
  28. Gilal FG, Zhang J, Gilal NG, Gilal RG (2018) Association between a parent’s brand passion and a child’s brand passion: a moderated moderated-mediation model. Psychol Res Behav Manag 11:91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goudas M, Biddle S, Fox K (1994) Perceived locus of causality, goal orientations, and perceived competence in school physical education classes. Br J Educt Psychol 64(3):453–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gould SJ, Stern BB (1989) Gender schema and fashion consciousness. Psychol Market 6(2):129–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL (1998) Multivariate data analysis. Prentice hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  32. Hemsley-Brown J, Hemsley-Brown J, Alnawas I, Alnawas I (2016) Service quality and brand loyalty: the mediation effect of brand passion, brand affection and self-brand connection. Int J Contemp Hosp Manag 28(12):2771–2794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoegele D, Schmidt SL, Torgler B (2016) The importance of key celebrity characteristics for customer segmentation by age and gender: does beauty matter in professional football? Rev Manag Sci 10(3):601–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hofstede G (2003) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage publications, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  35. Hu LT, Bentler PM (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Eq Model Multidisciplinary J 6(1):1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hur WM, Kim H, Kim WM (2014) The moderating roles of gender and age in tablet computer adoption. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 17(1):33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kirkpatrick LA, Hood Jr RW (1990) Intrinsic-extrinsic religious orientation: the boon or bane of contemporary psychology of religion? J Sci Study Relig 6(4):442–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Koestner R, Ryan RM, Bernieri F, Holt K (1984) Setting limits on children’s behavior: the differential effects of controlling versus informational styles on intrinsic motivation and creativity. J Pers 52(3):233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koestner R, Losier GF, Vallerand RJ, Carducci D (1996) Identified and introjected forms of political internalization: extending self-determination theory. J Pers Soc Psychol 70(5):1025–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koivisto J, Hamari J (2014) Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification. Comput Hum Behav 35:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee CK, Chung N, Bernhard BJ (2014) Examining the structural relationships among gambling motivation, passion, and consequences of internet sports betting. J Gambl Stud 30(4):845–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li JJ, Su C (2007) How face influences consumption. Int J Mark Res 49(2):237–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lin CP, Tsai YH, Chiu CK (2009) Modeling customer loyalty from an integrative perspective of self-determination theory and expectation–confirmation theory. J Bus Psychol 24(3):315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Losier GF, Koestner R (1999) Intrinsic versus identified regulation in distinct political campaigns: the consequences of following politics for pleasure versus personal meaningfulness. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 25(3):287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Loureiro SMC, Costa I, Panchapakesan P (2017) A passion for fashion: the impact of social influence, vanity and exhibitionism on consumer behavior. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 45(5):468–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lucas K, Sherry JL (2004) Sex differences in video game play: a communication-based explanation. Commun Res 31(5):499–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Malhotra Y (2004) Desperately seeking self-determination; key to the new enterprise logic of customer relationships. In: paper presented to the Americas conference on information systems, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Matzler K, Pichler EA, Hemetsberger A (2007) Who is spreading the word? The positive influence of extraversion on consumer passion and brand evangelism. Mark Theory Appl 18:25–32Google Scholar
  49. Minton HL, Schneider FW (1980) Differential psychology. Waveland Press, Prospect HeightsGoogle Scholar
  50. Mitchell VW, Walsh G (2004) Gender differences in German consumer decision-making styles. J Consum Behav 3(4):331–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Morris MG, Venkatesh V (2000) Age differences in technology adoption decisions: implications for a changing work force. Pers Psychol 53(2):375–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Morse A, Peloso A, Sambath V (2003) The antecedent role of individual differences in motivation, perseverance and the protection of high innovation goals, In: Kehoe W & Whitten L (Eds.) Proceedings of advances in marketing: pedagogy, philosophy and processes, New Orleans, Louisiana, 61–65Google Scholar
  53. Moulard JG, Raggio RD, Folse JAG (2016) Brand authenticity: testing the antecedents and outcomes of brand management’s passion for its products. Psychol Mark 33(6):421–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nelissen RM, Meijers MH (2011) Social benefits of luxury brands as costly signals of wealth and status. Evol Hum Behav 32(5):343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nie Y, Chua BL, Yeung AS, Ryan RM, Chan WY (2015) The importance of autonomy support and the mediating role of work motivation for well-being: Testing self-determination theory in a Chinese work organisation. Int J Psychol 50(4):245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nysveen H, Pedersen PE, Thorbjørnsen H (2005) Explaining intention to use mobile chat services: moderating effects of gender. J Consum Mark 22(5):247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Park HJ, Rabolt NJ, Sook Jeon K (2008) Purchasing global luxury brands among young Korean consumers. J Fash Mark Manag Int J 12(2):244–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pradhan D, Kapoor V, Moharana TR (2017) One step deeper: gender and congruity in celebrity endorsement. Mark Intell Plan 35(6):774–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Preacher KJ, Rucker DD, Hayes AF (2007) Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivar Behav Res 42(1):185–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Razmus W, Jaroszyńska M, Palęga M (2017) Personal aspirations and brand engagement in self-concept. Personality Individ Differ 105:294–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Roy S, Guha A, Biswas A (2015) Celebrity endorsements and women consumers in India: how generation-cohort affiliation and celebrity-product congruency moderate the benefits of chronological age congruency. Mark Lett 26(3):363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ruiz MC, Haapanen S, Tolvanen A, Robazza C, Duda JL (2017) Predicting athletes’ functional and dysfunctional emotions: the role of the motivational climate and motivation regulations. J Sports Sci 35(16):1598–1606Google Scholar
  63. Ryan RM, Deci EL (2000) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemp Educ Psychol 25(1):54–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rybnicek R, Bergner S, Gutschelhofer A (2017) How individual needs influence motivation effects: a neuroscientific study on McClelland’s need theory. Rev Manag Sci. Google Scholar
  65. Schmitt BH, Leclerc F, Dube-Rioux L (1988) Sex typing and consumer behavior: a test of gender schema theory. J Consum Res 15(1):122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Spence JT, Helmreich RL (1980) Masculine instrumentality and feminine expressiveness: their relationships with sex role attitudes and behaviors. Psychol Women Q 5(2):147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Standage M, Duda JL, Ntoumanis N (2005) A test of self-determination theory in school physical education. Br J Educt Psychol 75(3):411–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sternberg RJ (1986) A triangular theory of love. Psychol Rev 93(2):119–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sternberg RJ (1997) Construct validation of a triangular love scale. Eur J Soc Psychol 27(3):313–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stokburger-Sauer NE, Teichmann K (2013) Is luxury just a female thing? The role of gender in luxury brand consumption. J Bus Res 66(7):889–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sun H, Zhang P (2006) The role of moderating factors in user technology acceptance. Int J Hum Comput Stud 64(2):53–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sweeney JC, Webb D, Mazzarol T, Soutar GN (2014) Self-determination theory and word of mouth about energy-saving behaviors: an online experiment. Psychol Mark 31(9):698–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Swimberghe KR, Astakhova M, Wooldridge BR (2014) A new dualistic approach to brand passion: harmonious and obsessive. J Bus Res 67(12):2657–2665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Teo TS (2001) Demographic and motivation variables associated with Internet usage activities. Internet Res 11(2):125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Teo TS, Lim VK (1997) Usage patterns and perceptions of the internet: the gender gap. Equal Oppor Int 16(6/7):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tian KT, Bearden WO, Hunter GL (2001) Consumers’ need for uniqueness: scale development and validation. J Consum Res 28(1):50–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Truong Y, McColl R, Kitchen PJ (2010) Uncovering the relationships between aspirations and luxury brand preference. J Product Brand Manag 19(5):346–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vallerand RJ, Blanchard C, Mageau GA, Koestner R, Ratelle C, Léonard M et al (2003) Les passions de l’ame: on obsessive and harmonious passion. J Pers Soc Psychol 85(4):756–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Venkatesh V, Davis FD (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Manage Sci 46(2):186–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Venkatesh V, Morris MG (2000) Why don't men ever stop to ask for directions? Gender, social influence, and their role in technology acceptance and usage behavior. MIS Q 24(1):115–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Venkatesh V, Morris MG, Ackerman PL (2000) A longitudinal field investigation of gender differences in individual technology adoption decision-making processes. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 83(1):33–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wang CKJ, Khoo A, Liu WC, Divaharan S (2008) Passion and intrinsic motivation in digital gaming. CyberPsychol Behav 11(1):39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang YS, Wu MC, Wang HY (2009) Investigating the determinants and age and gender differences in the acceptance of mobile learning. Br J Educt Technol 40(1):92–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. White C (2015) The impact of motivation on customer satisfaction formation: a self-determination perspective. Eur J Mark 49(11/12):1923–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Whitley BE (1997) Gender differences in computer-related attitudes and behavior: a meta-analysis. Comput Hum Behav 13(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Williams GC, Grow VM, Freedman ZR, Ryan RM, Deci EL (1996) Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. J Pers Soc Psychol 70(1):115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Williams D, Consalvo M, Caplan S, Yee N (2009) Looking for gender: gender roles and behaviors among online gamers. J Commun 59(4):700–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yeoman I (2011) The changing behaviors of luxury consumption. J Revenue Pricing Manag 10(1):47–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yim CK, Tse DK, Chan KW (2008) Strengthening customer loyalty through intimacy and passion: Roles of customer–firm affection and customer–staff relationships in services. J Mark Res 45(6):741–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhang Y, Zhang J, Song Y, Gong Z (2016) The different relations of extrinsic, introjected, identified regulation and intrinsic motivation on employees’ performance: empirical studies following self-determination theory. Manag Decis 54(10):2393–2412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhang J, Gong Z, Zhang S, Zhao Y (2017) Impact of the supervisor feedback environment on creative performance: a moderated mediation model. Front Psychol. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faheem Gul Gilal
    • 1
  • Jian Zhang
    • 1
  • Rukhsana Gul Gilal
    • 2
  • Naeem Gul Gilal
    • 3
  1. 1.Donlinks School of Economics and ManagementUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingP.R. China
  2. 2.Sukkur IBA UniversitySukkurPakistan
  3. 3.School of ManagementHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyHubeiP.R. China

Personalised recommendations