Without each other, we have nothing: a state-of-the-art analysis on how to operationalize social capital

Review Paper


The objective of this article is to review current empirical literature on social capital, a term that broadly refers to the valuable resources derived from interpersonal relations in social networks. A better understanding of this concept can advance research in many domains, particularly as they relate to topics affected by social ties and their embedded resources, such as knowledge sharing and Web 2.0. We examined quantitative studies from top-ranked business-oriented and sociological journals published prior to 2016 that proposed an operationalization of social capital. Based on these criteria, we identified 88 peer-reviewed studies that examine the effect of social capital in different areas. Our review confirms the concept’s basic tenet and shows that researchers from different domains link social capital to a variety of business-oriented and sociological phenomena. However, our state-of-the-art analysis also identifies certain shortcomings of recent social capital research. Thus, the article concludes with a discussion of the challenges inherent to this research stream and proposes some avenues for future growth. In addition, this article can serve a go-to resource for operationalizing social capital that considers the concept’s multidimensionality and provides valuable guidance to scholars looking to conduct their own research in this area.


Social capital Information systems Operationalization State-of-the-art Literature review 

Mathematics Subject Classification




The authors thank the anonymous reviewers and the editor for the very helpful comments and suggestions. This work has been [co-]funded by the DFG as part of project “B.3. Social Capital and Social Networks” within the RTG 2050 “Privacy and Trust for Mobile Users”. Diese Arbeit wurde [teilweise] aus Mitteln der DFG im Rahmen des Forschungsteilbereichs „Soziales Kapital und Soziale Netzwerke B.3“ innerhalb des GRK 2050 “Privacy and Trust for Mobile Users” finanziert.

Supplementary material

11846_2018_280_MOESM1_ESM.docx (71 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 70 kb)
11846_2018_280_MOESM2_ESM.docx (167 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 166 kb)


  1. Abbas R, Mesch G (2018) Do rich teens get richer? Facebook use and the link between offline and online social capital among Palestinian youth in Israel. Inf Commun Soc 21:63–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acquaah M (2007) Managerial social capital, strategic orientation, and organizational performance in an emerging economy. Strateg Manag J 28:1235–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adam F, Rončević B (2003) Social capital: recent debates and research trends. Soc Sci Inf 42:155–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adler PS, Kwon S-W (2000) Social capital: the good, the bad, and the ugly. In: Lesser E (ed) Knowledge and social capital: foundations and applications. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, pp 89–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adler PS, Kwon S-W (2002) Social capital: prospects for a new concept. Acad Manag Rev 27:17–40Google Scholar
  6. Agampodi TC, Agampodi SB, Glozier N, Siribaddana S (2015) Measurement of social capital in relation to health in low and middle income countries (LMIC): a systematic review. Soc Sci Med 128:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Agarwal R, Dhar V (2014) Editorial-big data, data science, and analytics: the opportunity and challenge for IS research. Inf Syst Res 25:443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aguilera MB, Massey DS (2003) Social capital and the wages of Mexican migrants: new hypotheses and tests. Soc Forces 82:671–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahearne M, Lam SK, Kraus F (2014) Performance impact of middle managers’ adaptive strategy implementation: the role of social capital. Strateg Manag J 35:68–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ali-Hassan H (2013) Social capital in management information systems literature. J Inf Technol Res (JITR) 6:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ali-Hassan H, Nevo D, Wade M (2015) Linking dimensions of social media use to job performance: the role of social capital. J Strateg Inf Syst 24:65–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alvarez EC, Kawachi I, Romani JR (2017) Family social capital and health–a systematic review and redirection. Sociol Health Illn 39:5–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Andriani L, Christoforou A (2016) Social capital: a roadmap of theoretical and empirical contributions and limitations. J Econ Issues 50:4–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aral S (2016) Networked experiments. In: Bramoulle Y, Galeotti A, Rogers B (eds) The Oxford handbook of the economics of networks. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 376–411Google Scholar
  15. Balijepally V, Mahapatra R, Nerur S (2004) Social capital: a theoretical lens for IS research. In: AMCIS 2004 proceedings, p 187Google Scholar
  16. Bapna R, Gupta A, Rice S, Sundararajan A (2011) Trust, reciprocity and the strength of social ties: an online social network based field experiment. In: Conference on information systems and technology (CIST)Google Scholar
  17. Baskerville RL, Myers MD (2002) Information systems as a reference discipline. MIS Q 26:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Belliveau MA, Reilly O, Charles A III, Wade JB (1996) Social capital at the top: effects of social similarity and status on CEO compensation. Acad Manag J 39:1568–1593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Benton RA (2016) Uniters or dividers? Voluntary organizations and social capital acquisition. Soc Netw 44:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bevelander P, Pendakur R (2009) Social capital and voting participation of immigrants and minorities in Canada. Ethnic Racial Stud 32:1406–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bitter S, Grabner-Kräuter S (2016) Consequences of customer engagement behavior: when negative Facebook posts have positive effects. Electron Mark 26:219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bohn A, Buchta C, Hornik K, Mair P (2014) Making friends and communicating on Facebook: implications for the access to social capital. Soc Netw 37:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bolino MC, Turnley WH, Bloodgood JM (2002) Citizenship behavior and the creation of social capital in organizations. Acad Manag Rev 27:505–522Google Scholar
  24. Borgatti SP, Jones C, Everett MG (1998) Network measures of social capital. Connections 21:27–36Google Scholar
  25. Bouncken RB, Reuschl AJ (2016) Coworking-spaces: how a phenomenon of the sharing economy builds a novel trend for the workplace and for entrepreneurship. Rev Manag Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-016-0215-y Google Scholar
  26. Bouncken RB, Gast J, Kraus S, Bogers M (2015) Coopetition: a systematic review, synthesis, and future research directions. Rev Manag Sci 9:577–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bourdieu P (1986) The forms of capital. In: Richardson J (ed) Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. Greenwood, Westport, pp 241–258Google Scholar
  28. Boxman EA, De Graaf PM, Flap HD (1991) The impact of social and human capital on the income attainment of Dutch managers. Soc Netw 13:51–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brooks B, Hogan B, Ellison N, Lampe C, Vitak J (2014) Assessing structural correlates to social capital in Facebook ego networks. Soc Netw 38:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brose N (2008) Entscheidung unter Unsicherheit-Familiengründung und-erweiterung im Erwerbsverlauf. KZfSS Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 60:34–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brunie A (2009) Meaningful distinctions within a concept: relational, collective, and generalized social capital. Soc Sci Res 38:251–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Burt RS (1992) Structural holes: the social structure of competition. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  33. Carnabuci G, Diószegi B (2015) Social networks, cognitive style, and innovative performance: a contingency perspective. Acad Manag J 58:881–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Carroll GR, Teo AC (1996) On the social networks of managers. Acad Manag J 39:421–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cheung SY, Phillimore J (2014) Refugees, social capital, and labour market integration in the UK. Sociology 48:518–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coleman JS (1988) Social capital in the creation of human capital. Am J Sociol 94:S95–S120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dahl E, Malmberg-Heimonen I (2010) Social inequality and health: the role of social capital. Sociol Health Illn 32:1102–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. De Silva MJ, McKenzie K, Harpham T, Huttly SR (2005) Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review. J Epidemiol Community Health 59:619–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De Silva MJ, Harpham T, Tuan T, Bartolini R, Penny ME, Huttly SR (2006) Psychometric and cognitive validation of a social capital measurement tool in Peru and Vietnam. Soc Sci Med 62:941–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dika SL, Singh K (2002) Applications of social capital in educational literature: a critical synthesis. Rev Educ Res 72:31–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dokko G, Rosenkopf L (2010) Social capital for hire? Mobility of technical professionals and firm influence in wireless standards committees. Organ Sci 21:677–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Durlauf SN (2002) On the empirics of social capital. Econ J 112(483):F459–F479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Durlauf SN, Fafchamps M (2005) Social capital. In: Aghion P, Durlauf SN (eds) Handbook of economic growth, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1639–1699Google Scholar
  44. Ellison NB, Vitak J (2015) Social network site affordances and their relationship to social capital processes. In: Sundar S (ed) The handbook of the psychology of communication technology. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 205–227Google Scholar
  45. Ellison NB, Steinfield C, Lampe C (2007) The benefits of facebook “friends:” social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. J Comput Med Commun 12:1143–1168.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ellison NB, Gibbs JL, Weber MS (2015) The use of enterprise social network sites for knowledge sharing in distributed organizations: the role of organizational affordances. Am Behav Sci 59:103–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Engbers TA, Thompson MF, Slaper TF (2017) Theory and measurement in social capital research. Soc Indic Res 132:537–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Faraj S, Kudaravalli S, Wasko M (2015) Leading collaboration in online communities. MIS Q 39:393–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ferguson KM (2006) Social capital and children’s wellbeing: a critical synthesis of the international social capital literature. Int J Soc Welf 15:2–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fernandez RM, Castilla EJ, Moore P (2000) Social capital at work: networks and employment at a phone center. Am J Sociol 105:1288–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Field J (2008) Social capital. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Fischer HM, Pollock TG (2004) Effects of social capital and power on surviving transformational change: the case of initial public offerings. Acad Manag J 47:463–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Flap H, Völker B (2001) Goal specific social capital and job satisfaction: effects of different types of networks on instrumental and social aspects of work. Soc Netw 23:297–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fleming L, Waguespack DM (2007) Brokerage, boundary spanning, and leadership in open innovation communities. Organ Sci 18:165–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Florin J, Lubatkin M, Schulze W (2003) A social capital model of high-growth ventures. Acad Manag J 46:374–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Franzen A, Pointner S (2011) Calling social capital: an analysis of the determinants of success on the TV quiz show “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?”. Soc Netw 33:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gabbay SM, Zuckerman EW (1998) Social capital and opportunity in corporate RandD: the contingent effect of contact density on mobility expectations. Soc Sci Res 27:189–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gaddis SM (2012) What’s in a relationship? An examination of social capital, race and class in mentoring relationships. Soc Forces 90:1237–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Galunic C, Ertug G, Gargiulo M (2012) The positive externalities of social capital: benefiting from senior brokers. Acad Manag J 55:1213–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gargiulo M, Benassi M (2000) Trapped in your own net? Network cohesion, structural holes, and the adaptation of social capital. Organ Sci 11:183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gittins T, Lang R, Sass M (2015) The effect of return migration driven social capital on SME internationalisation: a comparative case study of IT sector entrepreneurs in Central and Eastern Europe. Rev Manag Sci 9:385–409.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-014-0161-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Golder SA, Macy MW (2014) Digital footprints: opportunities and challenges for online social research. Ann Rev Sociol 40:129–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gonzalez GR, Claro DP, Palmatier RW (2014) Synergistic effects of relationship managers’ social networks on sales performance. J Mark 78:76–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Granovetter MS (1973) The strength of weak ties. Am J Sociol 78:1360–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gupta KR (2008) Social capital—an overview. In: Gupta KR, Svendsen GLH, Maiti P (eds) Social capital. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  66. Harpham T (2008) The measurement of community social capital through surveys. In: Kawachi I, Subramanian SV, Kim D (eds) Social capital and health. Springer, New York, pp 51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harzing (2015) The journal quality list. http://www.harzing.com/jql.htm. Accessed 9 Oct 2017
  68. Harzing AW, Van Der Wal R (2009) A Google Scholar h-index for journals: an alternative metric to measure journal impact in economics and business. J Am Soc Inform Sci Technol 60:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hasan S, Bagde S (2013) The mechanics of social capital and academic performance in an Indian college. Am Sociol Rev 78:1009–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hennig M, Brandes U, Pfeffer J, Mergel I (2012) Studying social networks: a guide to empirical research. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  71. Hinz O, Spann M, Hann I-H (2015) Research note—Can’t Buy Me Love…Or Can I? Social capital attainment through conspicuous consumption in virtual environments. Inf Syst Res 26:859–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hofer M, Aubert V (2013) Perceived bridging and bonding social capital on Twitter: differentiating between followers and followees. Comput Hum Behav 29:2134–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hsung RM, Breiger R (2010) Position generators, affiliations and the institutional logics of social capital: a study of Taiwan firms and individuals. In: Hsung RM, Lin N, Breiger R (eds) Contexts of social capital: social networks in markets, communities and families. Routledge, New York, NY, pp 3–21Google Scholar
  74. Inkpen AC, Tsang EW (2005) Social capital, networks, and knowledge transfer. Acad Manag Rev 30:146–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Islam MK, Merlo J, Kawachi I, Lindström M, Gerdtham U-G (2006) Social capital and health: does egalitarianism matter? A literature review. Int J Equity Health 5:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jacobs JA (2015) Journal rankings in sociology: using the H index with Google Scholar. Am Sociol 47:1–33Google Scholar
  77. Jungherr A, Theocharis Y (2017) The empiricist’s challenge: asking meaningful questions in political science in the age of big data. J Inf Technol Polit 14:97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kankanhalli A, Tan BC, Wei K-K (2005) Contributing knowledge to electronic repositories: an empirical investigation. MIS Q 29:113–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kirsch LJ, Ko D-G, Haney MH (2010) Investigating the antecedents of team-based clan control: adding social capital as a predictor. Organ Sci 21:469–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kleinbaum AM (2012) Organizational misfits and the origins of brokerage in intrafirm networks. Adm Sci Q 57:407–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Knack S, Keefer P (1997) Does social capital have an economic payoff? A cross-country investigation. Q J Econ 112:1251–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Koka BR, Prescott JE (2002) Strategic alliances as social capital: a multidimensional view. Strateg Manag J 23:795–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Krasnova H, Widjaja T, Buxmann P, Wenninger H, Benbasat I (2015) Research note—why following friends can hurt you: an exploratory investigation of the effects of envy on social networking sites among college-age users. Inf Syst Res 26:585–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kraus S, Filser M, O’Dwyer M, Shaw E (2014) Social entrepreneurship: an exploratory citation analysis. Rev Manag Sci 8:275–292.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-013-0104-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kwon S-W, Adler PS (2014) Social capital: maturation of a field of research. Acad Manag Rev 39:412–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lancee B (2010) The economic returns of immigrants’ bonding and bridging social capital: the case of the Netherlands. Int Migr Rev 44:202–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Leana CR, Pil FK (2006) Social capital and organizational performance: evidence from urban public schools. Organ Sci 17:353–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Leana CR, Van Buren HJ (1999) Organizational social capital and employment practices. Acad Manag Rev 24:538–555Google Scholar
  89. Leonardi PM, Huysman M, Steinfield C (2013) Enterprise social media: definition, history, and prospects for the study of social technologies in organizations. J Comput Med Commun 19:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Levin DZ, Cross R (2004) The strength of weak ties you can trust: the mediating role of trust in effective knowledge transfer. Manag Sci 50:1477–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Li Y (2015) Social capital in sociological research: conceptual rigour and empirical application. In: Li Y (ed) Handbook of research methods and applications in social capital. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Li Y, Pickles A, Savage M (2005) Social capital and social trust in Britain. Eur Sociol Rev 21:109–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lin N (1999) Social networks and status attainment. Ann Rev Sociol 25:467–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lin N (2008) A network theory of social capital. In: Castiglione D, Deth JW, Wolleb G (eds) The handbook of social capital. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 50–69Google Scholar
  95. Loury G (1992) The economics of discrimination: getting to the core of the problem. Harv J Afr Am Public Policy 1:91–110Google Scholar
  96. Lu Y, Ruan D, Lai G (2013) Social capital and economic integration of migrants in urban China. Soc Netw 35:357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lundmark S, Gilljam M, Dahlberg S (2016) Measuring generalized trust an examination of question wording and the number of scale points. Public Opin Q 80:26–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lutter M (2015) Do women suffer from network closure? The moderating effect of social capital on gender inequality in a project-based labor market, 1929 to 2010. Am Sociol Rev 80:329–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Macinko J, Starfield B (2001) The utility of social capital in research on health determinants. Milbank Q 79:387–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mathwick C, Wiertz C, De Ruyter K (2008) Social capital production in a virtual P3 community. J Consum Res 34:832–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McDonald S (2011a) What you know or who you know? Occupation-specific work experience and job matching through social networks. Soc Sci Res 6:1664–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McDonald S (2011b) What’s in the “old boys” network? Accessing social capital in gendered and racialized networks. Soc Netw 4:317–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McDonald S, Elder GH (2006) When does social capital matter? Non-searching for jobs across the life course. Soc Forces 85:521–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. McDonald S, Lin N, Ao D (2009) Networks of opportunity: gender, race, and job leads. Soc Probl 56:385–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McFadyen MA, Cannella AA (2004) Social capital and knowledge creation: diminishing returns of the number and strength of exchange relationships. Acad Manag J 47:735–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mingers J, Macri F, Petrovici D (2012) Using the h-index to measure the quality of journals in the field of business and management. Inf Process Manage 48:234–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mizruchi MS, Stearns LB (2001) Getting deals done: the use of social networks in bank decision-making. Am Sociol Rev 66:647–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Molina-Morales FX, Martínez-Fernández MT (2009) Too much love in the neighborhood can hurt: how an excess of intensity and trust in relationships may produce negative effects on firms. Strateg Manag J 30:1013–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Moran P (2005) Structural vs. relational embeddedness: social capital and managerial performance. Strateg Manag J 26:1129–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Morrow V (1999) Conceptualising social capital in relation to the well-being of children and young people: a critical review. Sociol Rev 47:744–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mouw T (2006) Estimating the causal effect of social capital: a review of recent research. Annu Rev Sociol 32:79–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Nahapiet J, Ghoshal S (1998) Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Acad Manag Rev 23:242–266Google Scholar
  113. Ng N, Eriksson M (2015) Social capital and self-rated health in older populations in lower-and upper-middle income countries. In: Nyqvist F, Forsman AK (eds) Social capital as a health resource in later life: the relevance of context. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 157–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nyqvist F, Pape B, Pellfolk T, Forsman AK, Wahlbeck K (2014) Structural and cognitive aspects of social capital and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Soc Indic Res 116:545–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. O’Connor LT (2013) Ask and you shall receive: social network contacts’ provision of help during the job search. Soc Netw 35:593–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. O’Brien RL (2012) Depleting capital? Race, wealth and informal financial assistance. Soc Forces 91:375–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Obukhova E, Lan G (2013) Do job seekers benefit from contacts? A direct test with contemporaneous searches. Manag Sci 59:2204–2216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Oh H, Chung MH, Labianca G (2004) Group social capital and group effectiveness: the role of informal socializing ties. Acad Manag J 47:860–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Paldam M (2000) Social capital: one or many? Definition and measurement. J Econ Surv 14:629–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Patulny RV, Svendsen GLH (2007) Exploring the social capital grid: bonding, bridging, qualitative, quantitative. Int J Sociol Soc Policy 27:32–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Paulhus DL, Vazire S (2007) The self-report method. In: Robins RW, Fraley RC, Krueger RF (eds) Handbook of research methods in personality. Guilford, London, pp 224–239Google Scholar
  122. Paxton P (1999) Is social capital declining in the United States? A multiple indicator assessment 1. Am J Sociol 105:88–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Payne GT, Moore CB, Griffis SE, Autry CW (2011) Multilevel challenges and opportunities in social capital research. J Manag 37:491–520Google Scholar
  124. Pennings JM, Lee K, Van Witteloostuijn A (1998) Human capital, social capital, and firm dissolution. Acad Manag J 41:425–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pil FK, Leana C (2009) Applying organizational research to public school reform: the effects of teacher human and social capital on student performance. Acad Manag J 52:1101–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Poder TG (2011) What is really social capital? A critical review. Am Sociol 42:341–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Podolny JM, Baron JN (1997) Resources and relationships: social networks and mobility in the workplace. Am Sociol Rev 62:673–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Portes A (1998) Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Ann Rev Sociol 24:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Portes A, Sensenbrenner J (1993) Embeddedness and immigration: notes on the social determinants of economic action. Am J Sociol 98:1320–1350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Puntscher S, Hauser C, Walde J, Tappeiner G (2016) Measuring social capital with aggregated indicators: a case of ecological fallacy? Soc Indic Res 125:431–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Putnam RD (1995) Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. J Democr 6:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Putnam RD (2000) Bowling alone—the collapse and revival of American community. Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  133. Putnam RD, Leonardi R, Nanetti R (1994) Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  134. Ravindran K, Susarla A, Mani D, Gurbaxani V (2015) Social capital and contract duration in buyer-supplier networks for information technology outsourcing. Inf Syst Res 26:379–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reagans R, Zuckerman EW (2001) Networks, diversity, and productivity: the social capital of corporate RandD teams. Organ Sci 12:502–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ream RK (2005) Toward understanding how social capital mediates the impact of mobility on Mexican American achievement. Soc Forces 84:201–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Riemer K (2005) Sozialkapital und Kooperation: Zur Rolle von Sozialkapital im Management zwischenbetrieblicher Kooperationsbeziehungen. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen (in German) Google Scholar
  138. Riemer K, Finke J, Hovorka DS (2015) Bridging or bonding: Do individuals gain social capital from participation in enterprise social networks? In: Proceedings international conference on information systems ICIS 2015, Fort Worth, United States, 16th Dec 2015Google Scholar
  139. Rindfleisch A, Malter AJ, Ganesan S, Moorman C (2008) Cross-sectional versus longitudinal survey research: concepts, findings, and guidelines. J Mark Res 45:261–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Robert LP Jr, Dennis AR, Ahuja MK (2008) Social capital and knowledge integration in digitally enabled teams. Inf Syst Res 19:314–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rodan S, Galunic C (2004) More than network structure: how knowledge heterogeneity influences managerial performance and innovativeness. Strateg Manag J 25:541–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Röper A, Völker B, Flap H (2009) Social networks and getting a home: do contacts matter? Soc Netw 31:40–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Rostila M (2011) The facets of social capital. J Theory Soc Behav 41:308–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Rowley T, Behrens D, Krackhardt D (2000) Redundant governance structures: an analysis of structural and relational embeddedness in the steel and semiconductor industries. Strateg Manag J 21:369–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rubin O (2016) The political dimension of “linking social capital”: current analytical practices and the case for recalibration. Theory Soc 45:429–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sabatini F (2009) Social capital as social networks: a new framework for measurement and an empirical analysis of its determinants and consequences. J Socio-Econ 38:429–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sageder M, Mitter C, Feldbauer-Durstmüller B (2018) Image and reputation of family firms: a systematic literature review of the state of research. Rev Manag Sci 12:335–377.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-016-0216-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sandefur RL, Laumann EO (1998) A paradigm for social capital. Ration Soc 10:481–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Schrader U, Hennig-Thurau T (2009) VHB-JOURQUAL2: method, results, and implications of the German academic association for business research’s journal ranking. BuR Bus Res 2:180–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Schwadel P, Stout M (2012) Age, period and cohort effects on social capital. Soc Forces 91:233–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Seibert SE, Kraimer ML, Liden RC (2001) A social capital theory of career success. Acad Manag J 44:219–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Shaw JD, Duffy MK, Johnson JL, Lockhart DE (2005) Turnover, social capital losses, and performance. Acad Manag J 48:594–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Simmel G (2010) Conflict and the web of group affiliations. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  154. Singh PV, Tan Y, Mookerjee V (2011) Network effects: the influence of structural capital on open source project success. MIS Q 35:813–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sluiter R, Tolsma J, Scheepers P (2015) At which geographic scale does ethnic diversity affect intra-neighborhood social capital? Soc Sci Res 54:80–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Son J, Lin N (2008) Social capital and civic action: a network-based approach. Soc Sci Res 37:330–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sønderskov KM (2011) Does generalized social trust lead to associational membership? Unravelling a bowl of well-tossed spaghetti. Eur Sociol Rev 27:419–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Song L (2012) Raising network resources while raising children? Access to social capital by parenthood status, gender, and marital status. Soc Netw 34:241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Stam W, Elfring T (2008) Entrepreneurial orientation and new venture performance: the moderating role of intra-and extraindustry social capital. Acad Manag J 51:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Stone W (2001) Measuring social capital: towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching social capital in family and community life, vol 24. Australian Institute of Family Studies, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  161. Sun Y, Fang Y, Lim KH, Straub D (2012) User satisfaction with information technology service delivery: a social capital perspective. Inf Syst Res 23:1195–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sundaramurthy C, Pukthuanthong K, Kor Y (2014) Positive and negative synergies between the CEO’s and the corporate board’s human and social capital: a study of biotechnology firms. Strateg Manag J 35:845–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Svendsen GL (2006) Studying social capital in situ: a qualitative approach. Theory and society 35:39–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Szreter S (2002) The state of social capital: bringing back in power, politics, and history. Theory Soc 31:573–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Szreter S, Woolcock M (2004) Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health. Int J Epidemiol 33:650–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Takac C, Hinz O, Spann M (2011) The social embeddedness of decision making: opportunities and challenges. Electron Mark 21:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Teney C, Hanquinet L (2012) High political participation, high social capital? A relational analysis of youth social capital and political participation. Soc Sci Res 41:1213–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Tian JJ, Haleblian JJ, Rajagopalan N (2011) The effects of board human and social capital on investor reactions to new CEO selection. Strateg Manag J 32:731–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Tindall DB, Cormier J, Diani M (2012) Network social capital as an outcome of social movement mobilization: using the position generator as an indicator of social network diversity. Soc Netw 34:387–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Tsai W (2000) Social capital, strategic relatedness and the formation of intraorganizational linkages. Strateg Manag J 21:925–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tsai W, Ghoshal S (1998) Social capital and value creation: the role of intrafirm networks. Acad Manag J 41:464–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tüselmann H, Sinkovics RR, Pishchulov G (2015) Towards a consolidation of worldwide journal rankings—a classification using random forests and aggregate rating via data envelopment analysis. Omega 51:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tüselmann H, Sinkovics RR, Pishchulov G (2016) Revisiting the standing of international business journals in the competitive landscape. J World Bus 51:487–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Uphoff N (2000) Understanding social capital: learning from the analysis and experience of participation. In: Dasguta P, Serageldin I (eds) Social capital: a multifaceted perspective. World Bank, Washington, pp 215–249Google Scholar
  175. Uphoff EP, Pickett KE, Cabieses B, Small N, Wright J (2013) A systematic review of the relationships between social capital and socioeconomic inequalities in health: a contribution to understanding the psychosocial pathway of health inequalities. Int J Equity Health 12:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Uzzi B (1996) The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: the network effect. Am Sociol Rev 61:674–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Van Breukelen G, Moerbeek M (2013) Design considerations in multilevel studies. In: Scott M, Simonoff J, Marx B (eds) The SAGE handbook of multilevel modeling. SAGE Publications Ltd, London, pp 183–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Van der Gaag MPJ, Webber M (2008) Measurement of individual social capital. In: Kawachi I, Subramanian SV, Kim D (eds) Social capital and health. Springer, New York, pp 29–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Van Emmerik IH (2006) Gender differences in the creation of different types of social capital: a multilevel study. Soc Netw 28:24–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Van Tubergen F (2014) Size and socio-economic resources of core discussion networks in the Netherlands: differences by national-origin group and immigrant generation. Ethnic Racial Stud 37:1020–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Van Tubergen F, Völker B (2015) Inequality in access to social capital in the Netherlands. Sociology 49:521–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Verhaeghe P-P, Van der Bracht K, Van de Putte B (2015) Inequalities in social capital and their longitudinal effects on the labour market entry. Soc Netw 40:174–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Villalonga-Olives E, Kawachi I (2015) The measurement of social capital. Gac Sanit 29:62–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Vom Brocke J, Simons A, Niehaves B, Riemer K, Plattfaut R, Cleven A (2009) Reconstructing the giant: on the importance of rigour in documenting the literature search process. In: Proceedings of 17th ECIS. Verona, pp 3226–3238Google Scholar
  185. Wagner H-T, Beimborn D, Weitzel T (2014) How social capital among information technology and business units drives operational alignment and IT business value. J Manag Inf Syst 31:241–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Walker G, Kogut B, Shan W (1997) Social capital, structural holes and the formation of an industry network. Organ Sci 8:109–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wasko MM, Faraj S (2005) Why should i share? Examining social capital and knowledge contribution in electronic networks of practice. MIS Q 29:35–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Wasserman S, Faust K (1994) Social network analysis: methods and applications, vol 8. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Webster J, Watson RT (2002) Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: writing a literature review. MIS Q 26:xiii–xxiiiGoogle Scholar
  190. Weil F, Lee MR, Shihadeh ES (2012) The burdens of social capital: how socially-involved people dealt with stress after Hurricane Katrina. Soc Sci Res 41:110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Wellman B, Quan-Haase A, Witte J, Hampton K (2001) Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment. Am Behav Sci 45:436–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Westlund H, Adam F (2010) Social capital and economic performance: a meta-analysis of 65 studies. Eur Plan Stud 18:893–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Whitley R (2008) Social capital and public health: qualitative and ethnographic approaches. In: Kawachi I, Subramanian SV, Kim D (eds) Social capital and heath. Springer, New York, pp 9–116Google Scholar
  194. Williams D (2006) On and off the’Net: scales for social capital in an online era. J Comput Med Commun 11:593–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Wohlin C (2014) Guidelines for snowballing in systematic literature studies and a replication in software engineering. In: Proceedings of the 18th international conference on evaluation and assessment in software engineering. ACM, p 38Google Scholar
  196. Woolcock M, Narayan D (2000) Social capital: implications for development theory, research, and policy. World Bank Res Observ 15:225–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Xiao Z, Tsui AS (2007) When brokers may not work: the cultural contingency of social capital in Chinese high-tech firms. Adm Sci Q 52:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Xiong G, Bharadwaj S (2011) Social capital of young technology firms and their IPO values: the complementary role of relevant absorptive capacity. J Mark 75:87–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Yang S, Lee H, Kurnia S (2009) Social capital in information and communications technology research: past, present, and future. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 25:23Google Scholar
  200. Yli-Renko H, Autio E, Sapienza HJ (2001) Social capital, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strateg Manag J 22:587–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zaheer A, Bell GG (2005) Benefiting from network position: firm capabilities, structural holes, and performance. Strateg Manag J 26:809–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Goethe-Universität FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany

Personalised recommendations