Skip to main content

Investigation of hand functions in individuals with cannabis and its derivatives use disorder



The present study was aimed to compare the grip/pinch strengths and manual dexterity of individuals with and without the use of cannabis and its derivatives.


A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted with 66 individuals, including 33 cases with the use of cannabis (and its derivatives) and 33 age- and sex-matched controls. Grip and pinch strengths were evaluated with a dynamometer. The Nine-Hole Peg Test (9HPT), Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test (MMDT), and Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) were used to assess the hand function.


The hand grip strength and dominant hand 2-point pinch (2PP) grip strength were less in individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) (p < 0.05). The 9HPT duration of the SUD patients was higher (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the MMDT insertion and rotation test results were different between the groups (p < 0.05). Grip strength was related with the MMDT insertion and rotation tests (r =  −0.411 to −0.480). There was significant correlation between grip strength with dominant hand 9HPT (r =  −0.370) and between dominant hand 3-point pinch (3PP) strength with MMDT insertion (r =  −0.378). In addition, dominant hand 2PP strength was correlated with overall hand function of MHQ (r = 0.382).


The individuals with cannabis use disorder showed reduced grip strength on both sides and decreased 2PP strength on the dominant side compared to healthy individuals. In addition, there is a decrease in the hand skills of individuals with cannabis use disorder. Decreased grip strength of individuals with cannabis use disorder affected their hand skills negatively.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.


  1. More A, Jackson B, Dimmock JA et al (2017) Exercise in the treatment of youth substance use disorders: review and recommendations. Front Psychol 8:1839

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. American Psychiatric Association D, Association AP (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5, vol 5. American psychiatric association Washington, DC

  3. Dumas TM, Ellis W, Litt DM (2020) What does adolescent substance use look like during the COVID-19 pandemic? Examining changes in frequency, social contexts, and pandemic-related predictors. J Adolesc Health 67(3):354–361

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Tiet QQ, Ilgen MA, Byrnes HF et al (2007) Treatment setting and baseline substance use severity interact to predict patients’ outcomes. Addiction 102(3):432–440

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Koob GF, Le Moal M (2008) Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annu Rev Psychol 59:29–53

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Fleury M-J, Djouini A, Huỳnh C et al (2016) Remission from substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend 168:293–306

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Madras B, Kuhar M (2013) The effects of drug abuse on the human nervous system. Elsevier

    Google Scholar 

  8. Battisti RA, Roodenrys S, Johnstone SJ et al (2010) Chronic cannabis users show altered neurophysiological functioning on Stroop task conflict resolution. Psychopharmacology 212(4):613–624

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Hall W, Degenhardt L (2007) Prevalence and correlates of cannabis use in developed and developing countries. Curr Opin Psychiatry 20(4):393–397

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Connor JP, Stjepanović D, Le Foll B et al (2021) Cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers 7(1):1–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Pearson-Dennett V, Flavel SC, Wilcox RA et al (2014) Hand function is altered in individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use. PLoS One 9(12):e115771

  12. Cassou B, Derriennic F, Iwatsubo Y, Amphoux M (1992) Physical diability after retirement and occupational risk factors during working life: a cross sectional epidemiological study in the Paris area. J Epidemiol Community Health 46(5):506–511

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Jahn WT, Cupon LN, Steinbaugh JH (2004) Functional and work capacity evaluation issues. J Chiropr Med 3(1):1–5

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. Organization WH (2010) Atlas on substance use (2010): resources for the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders. World Health Organization

    Google Scholar 

  15. Grice KO (2015) The use of occupation-based assessments and intervention in the hand therapy setting–a survey. J Hand Ther 28(3):300–306

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Ross JM, Ellingson JM, Frieser MJ et al (2022) The effects of cannabis use on physical health: a co-twin control study. Drug Alcohol Depend 230:109200

  17. Peretti-Watel P, Lorente FO (2004) Cannabis use, sport practice and other leisure activities at the end of adolescence. Drug Alcohol Depend 73(3):251–257

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Duruoz MT (2016) Hand function. Springer

    Google Scholar 

  19. Granfield R, Cloud W (2001) Social context and “natural recovery”: the role of social capital in the resolution of drug-associated problems. Subst Use Misuse 36(11):1543–1570

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Dupont WD, Plummer W (1997) PS: power and sample size calculation. Control Clin Trials 18–274

  21. Bohannon RW, Peolsson A, Massy-Westropp N et al (2006) Reference values for adult grip strength measured with a Jamar dynamometer: a descriptive meta-analysis. Physiotherapy 92(1):11–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Oxford Grice K, Vogel KA, Le V et al (2003) Adult norms for a commercially available Nine Hole Peg Test for finger dexterity. Am J Occup Ther 57(5):570–573

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Wang Y-C, Wickstrom R, Yen S-C et al (2018) Assessing manual dexterity: comparing the workability rate of manipulation test with the Minnesota manual dexterity test. J Hand Ther 31(3):339–347

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Öksüz Ç, Akel BS, Oskay D et al (2011) Cross-cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability process of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire in a Turkish population. J Hand Surg 36(3):486–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Fess E (1981) Clinical assessment recommendations. American society of hand therapists 6–8

  26. Mathiowetz V, Weber K, Kashman N, Volland G (1985) Adult norms for the nine hole peg test of finger dexterity. Am J Occup Ther 5(1):24–38

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Amirjani N, Ashworth NL, Gordon T et al (2007) Normative values and the effects of age, gender, and handedness on the Moberg Pick-Up Test. Muscle Nerve 35(6):788–792

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Desrosiers J, Rochette A, Hebert R, Bravo G (1997) The Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test: reliability, validity and reference values studies with healthy elderly people. Can J Occup Ther 64(5):270–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Dias J, Rajan R, Thompson J (2008) Which questionnaire is best? The reliability, validity and ease of use of the patient evaluation measure, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand and the Michigan hand outcome measure. J Hand Surg (European Volume)

  30. Gürbey SK, Metin M (2022) Development of a self-efficacy scale for preschool teachers on science teaching: validity and reliability study. Southeast Asian Stud 11(1):106–129

    Google Scholar 

  31. Tarter RE, Kirisci L, Mezzich A et al (2003) Neurobehavioral disinhibition in childhood predicts early age at onset of substance use disorder. Am J Psychiatry 160(6):1078–1085

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Türkcan A (1998) Türkiye’de madde kullananların profili: Hastane verilerinin incelenmesi. Düşünen Adam 11(3):56–64

    Google Scholar 

  33. Ay B, Toklu M, Sarıkamışlı M, Deniz F (2013) Türkiye Uyuşturucu ve Uyuşturucu Bağımlılığı İzleme Merkezi. Türkiye Uyuşturucu Raporu

  34. Karaağaç H, Usta ZE, Usta A et al (2017) Kayseri Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi AMATEM Kliniğinde yatarak tedavi gören hastaların sosyo-demografik özelliklerinin retrospektif analizi. Dusunen Adam 30(3):251–257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Yazici AB, Yazici E, Kumsar NA, Erol A (2015) Addiction profile in probation practices in Turkey: 5-year data analysis. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 11:2259

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Haward BM, Griffin MJ (2002) Repeatability of grip strength and dexterity tests and the effects of age and gender. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 75(1):111–119

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Rantanen T, Era P, Kauppinen M, Heikkinen E (1994) Maximal isometric muscle strength and socioeconomic status, health, and physical activity in 75-year-old persons. J Aging Phys Act 2(3):206–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Metter EJ, Talbot LA, Schrager M, Conwit R (2002) Skeletal muscle strength as a predictor of all-cause mortality in healthy men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 57(10):B359–B365

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Boulougouris J, Panayiotopoulos C, Antypas E et al (1976) Effects of chronic hashish use on medical status in 44 users compared with 38 controls. Ann N Y Acad Sci 282(1):168–172

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Trinh KV, Diep D, Robson H (2018) Marijuana and its effects on athletic performance: a systematic review. Clin J Sport Med 28(4):350–357

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Tyler H, Adams J, Ellis B (2005) What can handgrip strength tell the therapist about hand function? J Hand Ther 10(1):4–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Abdullaev Y, Posner MI, Nunnally R, Dishion TJ (2010) Functional MRI evidence for inefficient attentional control in adolescent chronic cannabis abuse. Behav Brain Res 215(1):45–57

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Pesta DH, Angadi SS, Burtscher M, Roberts CK (2013) The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance. Nutr Metab 10(1):1–15

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Ramaekers JG, Berghaus G, van Laar M, Drummer OH (2004) Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend 73(2):109–119

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Flavel SC, White JM, Todd G (2013) Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 28(6):612–614

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Beautrais AL, Marks DF (1976) A test of state dependency effects in marihuana intoxication for the learning of psychomotor tasks. Psychopharmacologia 46(1):37–40

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Bolla KI, Brown K, Eldreth D et al (2002) Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59(9):1337–1343

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Müller-Vahl K, Kolbe H, Schneider U, Emrich H (1999) Cannabis in movement disorders. J Complement Med Res 6(Suppl. 3):23–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Collin C, Davies P, Mutiboko I et al (2007) Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 14(3):290–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bekir Güçlü.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

The study was carried out in accordance with the ethical principles and the Helsinki Declaration. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Bezmiâlem Vakıf University (No:21/289).

Consent to participate

Informed consent of the patients was obtained.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Güçlü, B., Tuğay, B.U., Özden, F. et al. Investigation of hand functions in individuals with cannabis and its derivatives use disorder. Ir J Med Sci (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Grip strength
  • Hand dexterity
  • Hand function
  • Pinch strength
  • Substance use disorder