Skip to main content

Factors predicting completion in a cohort of opiate users entering a detoxification programme

Abstract

Aim

To determine the outcome and factors influencing outcome among a cohort of drug users commencing detoxification from opiate use.

Methods

National cohort study of randomly selected opiate users commencing methadone detoxification treatment in 1999, 2001 and 2003 (n = 327).

Results

One quarter 62 (25.6%) of opiate users had a successful detoxification within the 3-month study criteria. Receiving some inpatient treatment as part of detoxification programme resulted in completion by 56.3% drug users compared to outpatient only treatment (21%). The factors independently influencing detoxification are as follows: having some inpatient treatment AOR 5.9 (2.63–13.64) and never having injected AOR 2.25 (1.20–4.25). An additional 31 (9%) opiate users had a detoxification between 3 months and 1 year and 27 (8%) moved into methadone maintenance.

Conclusions

This study finds that having some inpatient treatment increases the likelihood of a detoxification within 3 months. Offering a detoxification early in a drug using career pre-injecting drug use should be considered for suitable and motivated patients.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    McLellan AT, Woody GE, Metzger D et al (1996) Evaluating the effectiveness of addiction treatments: reasonable expectations, appropriate comparisons. Milbank Q 74(1):51–85

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Gossop M (2006) Treating drug misuse problems: evidence of effectiveness. Department of Health, National Treatment Agency, London

  3. 3.

    Mattick RP, Hall W (1996) Are detoxification programmes effective? Lancet 347(8994):97–100

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Chutuape MA, Jasinski DR, Fingerhood MI, Stitzer ML (2001) One-, three-, and six-month outcomes after brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 27(1):19–44

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bargagli AM, Hickman M, Davoli M et al (2006) Drug-related mortality and its impact on adult mortality in eight European countries. Eur J Public Health 16(2):198

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    (2006) Ireland: new developments, trends and in-depth information on selected issues. National Report to the EMCDDA by the Reitox, National Focal Point. Health Research Board Drug Misuse Division, Dublin

  7. 7.

    Smyth BP, Barry J, Lane A et al (2005) In-patient treatment of opiate dependence: medium-term follow-up outcomes. B J Psychiatry 187(4):360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Day E, Ison J, Strang J (2005) Inpatient versus other settings for detoxification for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2). Art. no.:CD004580. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004580.pub2

  9. 9.

    Gossop M, Marsden J, Stewart D, Treacy S (2001) Outcomes after methadone maintenance and methadone reduction treatments: two-year follow-up results from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study. Drug Alcohol Depend 62(3):255–264

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hubbard RL, Marsden ME, Rachal JV, Harwood HJ, Cavanaugh ER, Drug Ginzburg HM, Treatment Abuse (1989) A national study of effectiveness. Chapel Hill, London

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Teesson M, Havard A, Ross J, Darke S (2006) Outcomes after detoxification for heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS). Drug Alcohol Rev 25(3):241–247

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Mulholland D (2007) A study to validate the exit information recorded on the Central Treatment List between 1999 and 2003. MFPHMI thesis

  13. 13.

    Gervin M, Hughes R, Bamford L, Smyth BP, Keenan E (2001) Heroin smoking by “chasing the dragon” in young opiate users in Ireland: stability and associations with use to “come down” off “Ecstasy”. J Subst Abuse Treat 20(4):297–300

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Smyth BP, Keenan E, O’Connor JJ (1998) Bloodborne viral infection in Irish injecting drug users. Addiction 93(11):1649–1656

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Mullen L, Barry J (2001) An analysis of 15–19-year-old first attenders at the Dublin Needle Exchange, 1990–97. Addiction 96(2):251–258

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    (2006) Inpatient treatment of drug and alcohol misusers in the National Health Service. SCAN Consensus Project, Specialist Clinical Addiction Network, London

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express sincere thanks to all the staff at national drug treatment services for their assistance. We would also like to thank Ms. Fionnuala Rafferty at the Central Treatment List.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Louise Mullen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mullen, L., Keenan, E., Barry, J. et al. Factors predicting completion in a cohort of opiate users entering a detoxification programme. Ir J Med Sci 179, 569–573 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11845-010-0469-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Addiction treatment
  • Detoxification
  • Opiate misuse
  • Methadone
  • Inpatient