Skip to main content

Contribution of Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) to Household Economy in Sri Lanka: A Case Study from Udadumbara Divisional Secretariat

Abstract

Indian gooseberry, one of the most popular medicinal fruit crops in South and Southeast Asia, has become an important source of income for rural forest dwellers in Sri Lanka. However, very little is known about the role of Indian gooseberry in household economies and its contribution to the local and national economies. To address this issue, we conducted a study in Udadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka to estimate the economic contribution of Indian gooseberry to household incomes and to quantify its dependency level among households with different socio-economic characteristics. The data were collected from 117 households through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. The results show that Indian gooseberry contributes on average 10.1% of the total household income, which is the third largest share after off-farm income (53.1%) and agricultural income (35.1%). The contribution of Indian gooseberry to the household income increases as other sources of income decrease which results in higher contributions for lower income households (16.4%) and lower contributions for higher income households (2.1%). Indian gooseberry income is significantly and negatively correlated with the agricultural land owned by households and water availability for agriculture and is positively correlated with the time spent for collection. Our results also found that if there is access to other sources of income and higher levels of education, the collectors’ dependences on Indian gooseberry are decreased. Moreover, the study found that Indian gooseberry trees are under a threatened and declining due to the reduction of forest cover and inappropriate management system. Therefore, collaborative management system through partnerships among rural community and the Forest Department is suggested.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Ashton MS, Gunatilleke CVS, Singhakumara BMP, Gunatilleke IAUN (2001) Restoration pathways for rain forest in Southwest Sri Lanka: a review of concept and models. For Ecol Manag 154:409–430

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Athukorala K (2013) Assessing integration of gender perspectives into Sri Lankan National Forest Policy: 1995 National Forestry Policy. Forestry Planning Unit, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Colombo

    Google Scholar 

  • Baboo R (2016) A study on plant product extraction and Indian Economy. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol 51:120–123. https://doi.org/10.15680/IJIRSET.2015.0501016120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Babulo B, Muys B, Nega F, Tollens E, Nyssen J, Deckers J, Mathijs E (2009) The economic contribution of forest resource use to rural livelihoods in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. For Policy Econ 11:123–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Badimo D, Lepetu J, Teketay D (2015) Utilization of edible wild plants and their contribution to household income in Gweta Village, Central Botswana. Afr J Food Sci Technol 67:220–228

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandaratillake HM (1995) Use of non wood forest products by village communities in Sri Lanka, in beyond timber: social, economic and cultural dimensions of non wood forest products in Asia and the pacific. RAP publication 1995/13, Bangkok

  • Bandyopadhyay S, Pakrashi SC, Pakrashi A (2000) The role of antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits on prevention from indomethacin induced gastric ulcer. J Ethnopharmacol 702:171–176

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Basavarajappa TP (2008) Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for food and livelihood security: an economic study of tribal economy in Western Ghats f Karnataka, M.Sc. Thesis, Ghent University, Belgium

  • Boedecker J, Termote C, Assogbadjo AE, Damme PV, Lachat C (2014) Dietary contribution of Wild Edible Plants to women’s diets in the buffer zone around the Lama forest, Benin—an underutilized potential. Food Secur 66:833–849

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cavendish W (2002) Quantitative methods for estimating the economic value of resource use to rural households. In: Campbell MB, Luckert KM (eds) Uncovering the Hidden Harvest: valuation methods for woodland and forest resources. Earthscan Publication Ltd., London

    Google Scholar 

  • Dasaroju S, Gottumukkala KM (2014) Current trends in the research of Emblica officinalis (Amla): a pharmacological perspective. Int J Pharm Life Sci 242:150–159

    Google Scholar 

  • Deshmukh BS, Waghmode A (2011) Role of wild edible fruits as a food resource: traditional knowledge. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2(7):919–924

    Google Scholar 

  • Edirisinghe EAPN, Ariyadasa KP, Chandani RPDS (2012) Forest cover assessment in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka For 34:1–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Erskine W, Ximenes A, Glazebrook D, Costa M, Lopes M, Spyckerelle L, Williams R, Nesbitt H (2015) The role of wild foods in food security: the example of Timor–Leste. Food Secur 71:55–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • FAO (1995) Report of the International expert consultation on non-wood forest products held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Non-Wood For Prod 3:17–27

    Google Scholar 

  • Fentahun MT, Hager H (2009) Exploiting locally available resources for food and nutritional security enhancement: wild fruits diversity, potential and state of exploitation in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Food Secur 1:207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foppes J, Ketphanh S (1997) The use of non timber forest product in Lao. P.D.R: paper presented at workshop on protected area management. Vientiane, Lao PDR. http://mekonginfo.org/assets/midocs/0003651-environment-the-use-of-non-timber-forest-products-in-lao-p-d-r.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2016

  • Ganesan R, Setty S (2004) Regeneration of Amla, an important non-timber forest product from Southern India. Conserv Soc 22:365–375

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghosal S (2011) Importance of non timber forest products in native households economy. J Geogr Reg Plan 43:159–168

    Google Scholar 

  • Goyal RK, Patil RT, Kingsly ARP, Walia H, Kumar P (2008) Status of post harvest technology of Aonla in India: a review. Am J Food Technol 31:13–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gunatilake HM, Senarathne DMAH, Abegunawardena P (1993) Role of none timber forest products in the economy of peripheral communities of knuckles national wilderness area of Sri Lanka: a farming systems approach. Econ Bot 473:275–281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gunatileke H, Chakravorty U (2003) Protecting forests through farming: a dynamic model of non timber forest extraction. Environ Resour Econ 24:1–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gunatileke IAUN, Gunatilleke CVS (1993) Forest conservation and forestry development in Sri Lanka-conflicts and compromise. Ecology and landscape management in Sri Lanka, Margraf, Germany, pp 243–254

  • Hegde R, Suryaprakash S, Achoth L, Bawa KS (1996) Extraction of non-timber forest production the forest of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India: contribution to rural income. Econ Bot 503:243–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hogarth NJ, Belcher B, Campbell B, Stacey N (2013) The role of forest related income in household economies and rural livelihoods in the border region of Southern China. World Dev 43:111–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howell CJ, Schwabe KA, Samah AHA (2010) Non timber forest product dependence among the Jah Hut subgroup of Peninsular Malaysia’s Orang Asli. Environ Dev Sustain 12:1–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hunnasgiriya Range Forest Office (2015) Management plan. Range Forest Office, Hunnasgiriya

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalaba FK, Chirwa PW, Prozesky H (2009) The contribution of indigenous fruit trees in sustaining rural livelihoods and conservation of natural resources. J Hortic For 11:001–006

    Google Scholar 

  • Kavita MB, Mallika KJ (2013) Amalaki (Indian goosberry): an ancient food supplement. Int J Res 41:11–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Khosravi S, Maleknia R, Khedrizadeh M (2016) Understanding the contribution of non-timber forest products to the livelihood of forest Dwellers in the Northern Zagros in Iran. Small-Scale For 16:1–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Krishnaveni M, Mirunalini S (2011) Amla—the role of ayurvedic therapeutic herb in cancer. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 43:13–17

    Google Scholar 

  • Leakey RRB (1999) Potential for novel food products from agroforestry trees: a review. Food Chem 66:1–14

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Leβmeister A, Heubach K, MetteLykke A, Thiombiano A, Wittig R, Hahn K (2016) The contribution of non- timber forest products (NTFPs) to rural household revenues in two villages in south-eastern Burkina Faso. Agrofor Syst 90:1–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Liu F (2015) Phyllanthus Emblica L. (Yuganzi, Indian gooseberry). In: Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhang J (eds) Dietary Chinese Herbs. Springer, Vienna, pp 447–455

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Liyanaarachchi A (2004) Foreseeing policy, non-timber forest products and rural economy-the case for Sri Lanka. In: Proceeding of the workshop forest for poverty reduction; can community forestry Make Money. Beijing, China. http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/ad511e/ad511e0s.htm. Accessed 3 Dec 2016

  • Mahapatra AK, Panda PC (2012) Wild edible fruit diversity and its significance in the livelihood of indigenous tribals: evidence from eastern India. Food Secur 4:219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maraseni TN, Maroulis J, Cockfield G (2008) An estimation of willingness to pay for asparagus (Asparagus racemosus Willd.) collectors in Makawanpur District, Nepal. J For Sci 54:131–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Misbahuzzaman K, Smith-Hall C (2015) Role of forest income in rural household livelihood: the case of village common forest communities in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Small Scale For 143:315–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mukul SA, Rashid AZMM, Khan NA (2015) The role of non-timber forest products in sustaining forest-based livelihoods and rural households’ resilience capacity in and around protected area: a Bangladesh study. J Environ Plan Manag 59(4):628–642

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mulenga BP, Richardson RB, Mapemba L, Tembo G (2011) The contribution of non timber forest products to rural household income in Zambia. Food Security Research Project, Lusaka

    Google Scholar 

  • Negi VS, Maikhuri RK, Rawat LS (2011) Non-timber forest products (NTFPs): a viable option for biodiversity conservation and livelihood enhancement in central Himalaya. Biodivers Conserv 20:545–559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nirogram (2017) Amalaki Rasayana vitamin C tonic for immunity-250 grams. A healthy you naturally. https://store.nirogam.com/products/amla-200-tablets?variant=51112027413. Accessed 05 Dec 2017

  • Pathak RK (2003) Status report on genetic resources of Indian Gooseberry-Anola (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.) in south and Southeast Asia. In: Mal B, Rao VR, Arora RK (eds) IPGRI office for South Asia. New Delhi, India, pp 11–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Prana IC, Ahirwar RK (2015) Socio-economic importance of some plants species used by the tribes of Chanda Forest District Dindori Madhya Pradesh, India. Int J Sci Res 43:1733–1735

    Google Scholar 

  • Pushpakumara DKNG, Heenkenda HMS (2007) Nelli (Amla) Phyllanthus emblica L. In: Pushpakumara DKNG, Gunasena HMP, Singh VP (eds) Underutilized fruit trees in Sri Lanka. World Agroforestry Centre, New Delhi, pp 180–221

    Google Scholar 

  • Quang D, Anh TN (2006) Commercial collection of NTFP and household living in or near the forests: case study in Que, Con Cuong and Ma, Tuong Duong, Nghe An, Viernam. Ecol Econ 60:65–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Quang NV, Noriko S (2008) Forest allocation policy and level of forest dependency of economic household groups: a case study in Northern Central Vietnam. Small-Scale For 7:49–66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ra K, Sasaki N (2013) Assessment of local livelihood of forest-dependent communities in Cambodia. Int J Environ Rural Dev 41:63–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Setalaphruk C, Price LL (2007) Children’s traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in rural village in Northeast Thailand. J Ethnobiol Ethno Med 3:26–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seyoum Y, Teketay D, Shumi G, Wondafirash M (2015) Edible wild fruit trees and shrubs and their socioeconomics significance in Central Ethiopia. Ethnobot Res Appl 14:183–197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shackleton CM, Shackleton SE (2003) The importance of none timber forest products in rural livelihood security and as safety net: a review of evidence from South Africa. S Afr J Sci 100:658–664

    Google Scholar 

  • Shankar U, Murali KS, Shaanker RM, Ganeshaiah KN, Bawa KS (1998) Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forest of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India: productivity, extraction and prospects of sustainable harvest of Amla, Phyllanthus emblica, (Euphorbiacea). Econ Bot 503:270–279

    Google Scholar 

  • Soni SK, Bansah N, Soni R (2009) Standardization of condition for fermentation and maturation of wine from Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.). Nat Prod Radiance 84:436–444

    Google Scholar 

  • Subasinghe SMCUP (2009) Forest management practices-Sri Lanka. http://www.sci.sjp.ac.lk/upulforestmanagementlanka/index.html Accessed 16 Jan 2015

  • Udadumbara Divisional Secretariat (2015) Sampath Pathikada. Udadumbara Divisional Secretariat, Sri Lanka

    Google Scholar 

  • Yemiru T, Roos A, Campbell BM, Bohlin F (2010) Forest incomes and poverty alleviation under participatory forest management in the Bale Highlands, Southern Ethiopia. Int For Rev 121:66–77

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the General Program of the National Social Science Foundation of China (Grant Number 15BGL.130). The authors would like to thank the Asia Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation for granting the scholarship to the first author. We also gratefully acknowledge N.T.P. Karunarathna, W.M.J.P.K.Wanigasekara and all of the forest officers in the Range forest office of Hunnasgiriya, Sri Lanka for their cooperation and support during data collection.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. M. B. P. Ekanayake.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ekanayake, E.M.B.P., Feng, M., Murindahabi, T. et al. Contribution of Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) to Household Economy in Sri Lanka: A Case Study from Udadumbara Divisional Secretariat. Small-scale Forestry 17, 277–292 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11842-017-9387-9

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11842-017-9387-9

Keywords

  • Indian gooseberry
  • Non timber forest products (NTFPs)
  • Household income
  • Livelihoods
  • Udadumbara Divisional Secretariat