Small-scale Forestry

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 285–300 | Cite as

Smallholder Agroforestry in Rwanda: A SWOT-AHP Analysis

  • G. Andrew Stainback
  • Michel Masozera
  • Athanase Mukuralinda
  • Puneet Dwivedi
Research Paper


The perception of Rwandan government officials, NGOs, and extension specialists about smallholder agroforestry adoption as a strategy for smallholder farmers in Rwanda was investigated using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis framework combined with the analytical hierarchy process. Results indicate that smallholder agroforestry is viewed positively as a suitable strategy for Rwandan smallholder farmers. The most important positive features were the potential for increased agricultural output from agroforestry and a favorable policy environment in Rwanda supporting sustainable agriculture. Results also indicate that there needs to be better coordination of various efforts to promote agroforestry and stronger extension services for smallholder farmers. Carbon offset markets and other environmental service markets were seen as a potential opportunity for smallholder agroforestry. However, the results also indicate that there is substantial uncertainty and skepticism concerning how such markets would benefit smallholder farmers who adopted agroforestry.


Agroforestry Smallholder farmers Rwanda SWOT-AHP 


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Copyright information

© Steve Harrison, John Herbohn 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Andrew Stainback
    • 1
  • Michel Masozera
    • 2
  • Athanase Mukuralinda
    • 3
  • Puneet Dwivedi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of ForestryUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Wildlife Conservation SocietyRwanda ProgramKigaliRwanda
  3. 3.World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)HuyeRwanda
  4. 4.School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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