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Titanium Alloy Particles Formation in Electrical Discharge Machining and Fractal Analysis

  • Characterization of Waste-Derived Materials
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A large amount of material is machined by electrical discharge machining (EDM) and the machined debris is flushed away as waste. The present study aims to establish EDM as a top-down method which can effectively machine hard-to-cut materials while the by-product, i.e., metal debris, can be utilized as micro/nano particles. In the present work, titanium-alloy grade 5 was machined using a die-sink EDM and the debris was collected from the dielectric fluid with a multistage filtration system. The collected debris was cleaned and the particles were characterized. Particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-rays to determine size, shape, and chemical crystal structure. The average size of the formed particles was 5.14 µm and they were spherical. A fractal analysis was performed on the SEM images to deepen the study of the formed particles.

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Data Availability Statement

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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The Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia supported this research through University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia under research grant number FRGS/1/2019/TK03/UMP/02/30 and supported by DRS from IPS, UMP.

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Authors and Affiliations



Irshad Ahamad Khilji & Sunil Pathak: conceptualization, investigation. Siti Nadiah Binte Mohd Saffe & Sunil Pathak: methodology, supervision. Sunil Pathak & Venugopal Reddy: reviewing and editing, validation. Ştefan Ţălu: investigation, reviewing, and editing. Slawomir Kulesza: validation, investigation. Miroslaw Bramowicz: image processing, fractal analysis, validation.

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Correspondence to Sunil Pathak.

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Khilji, I.A., Saffe, S.N.B.M., Pathak, S. et al. Titanium Alloy Particles Formation in Electrical Discharge Machining and Fractal Analysis. JOM 74, 448–455 (2022).

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