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Low-Field Alignment of Anisotropic Bonded Magnets for Additive Manufacturing of Permanent Magnet Motors

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Additive manufacturing techniques for fabricating bonded magnets have the potential to reduce manufacturing cost and time-to-market of products and address the criticality of rare-earth elements (REEs), which is a concern for economic design of dependent applications such as permanent magnet machines. We investigated the magnetic alignment of anisotropic bonded magnet material comprising 65 vol.% Nd-Fe-B in nylon-12 produced by extrusion in a 20-W brushless direct current surface permanent magnet motor for submersible water pump application using finite element analysis. The results predict that sufficient alignment for this application could be obtained at low alignment fields (μ0H ≤ 1 T) with a reduction in the volume of critical materials by up to 40% compared with isotropic permanent magnets. This demonstrates the economic feasibility of incorporating a magnetic alignment field source into additive manufacturing systems for bonded magnets, and the potential of aligned anisotropic bonded magnets to address REE criticality.

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This research was supported by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office. Work was performed at Ames Laboratory, ORNL, and LLNL under Contracts DE-AC02-07CH11358, DE-AC05-00OR22725, and DE-AC52-07NA27344, respectively. The authors would like to thank James Bell for providing the magnetic material.

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Correspondence to Helena A. Khazdozian.

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This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (

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Khazdozian, H.A., Li, L., Paranthaman, M.P. et al. Low-Field Alignment of Anisotropic Bonded Magnets for Additive Manufacturing of Permanent Magnet Motors. JOM 71, 626–632 (2019).

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