, Volume 70, Issue 5, pp 714–718 | Cite as

Diffusion in the Two-Phase Region During Carburization of Wrought Iron

  • J. D. Verhoeven
  • A. H. Pendray
  • W. E. Dauksch
Liquid->Solid->Solid Phase Transformations: Characterization and Modeling


Wrought iron containing 0.001%C was carburized in the intercritical temperature range between A3 and A1 and water quenched. During carburizing, a planar austenite–ferrite phase boundary migrates into the iron in this temperature range and the carbon content in the austenite at the boundary drops from 0.77% to 0% as the temperature rises from 727°C to 912°C. It is shown that the microstructure of the quenched austenite at the interface changes from martensite at the lower temperatures of the intercritical region to a bainite form at the higher temperatures. The cause of this change is discussed. Diffusion analysis is presented, showing reasonable agreement of case depths versus carburizing times. Metallographic evidence shows that carbon diffusion rates along ferrite/slag inclusions of the wrought iron far exceed either grain boundary diffusion or bulk diffusion rates.



The authors acknowledge Nucor Steel Company for carrying out the chemical analysis of the wrought iron and Iowa State University for use of metallography equipment.

Supplementary material

11837_2018_2767_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (500 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 500 kb)


  1. 1.
    J.D. Verhoeven, A.H. Pendray, and W.E. Dauksch, JOM 68, 2250 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Shewmon, Transformation in Metals (New York: McGraw Hill, 1969), p. 359.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F.N. Rhines, Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy (New York: McGraw Hill, 1956), p. 108.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.A. Wilson, ISIJ Int. 34, 615 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Krauss, Steels, Processing, Structure and Performance, Chap. 7 (Materials Park: ASM International, 2015).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.Master ABS BladesmithWillistonUSA
  3. 3.Nucor CorpCharlotteUSA

Personalised recommendations