Directed energy deposited (DED) and forged austenitic stainless steels possess dissimilar microstructures but can exhibit similar mechanical properties. In this study, annealing was used to evolve the microstructure of both conventional wrought and DED type 304L austenitic stainless steels, and significant differences were observed. In particular, the density of geometrically necessary dislocations and hardness were used to probe the evolution of the microstructure and properties. Forged type 304L exhibited the expected decrease in measured dislocation density and hardness as a function of annealing temperature. The more complex microstructure–property relationship observed in the DED type 304L material is attributed to compositional heterogeneities in the solidification microstructure.
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T.R.S. gratefully acknowledges support from the Campus Executive Fellowship from Sandia National Laboratories. R. Nishimoto is thanked for hardness testing support. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the US Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-NA-0003525.
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Smith, T.R., Sugar, J.D., Schoenung, J.M. et al. Anomalous Annealing Response of Directed Energy Deposited Type 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel. JOM 70, 358–363 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-017-2711-1