, Volume 68, Issue 7, pp 1872–1881 | Cite as

Manufacturing and Security Challenges in 3D Printing

  • Steven Eric Zeltmann
  • Nikhil Gupta
  • Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos
  • Michail Maniatakos
  • Jeyavijayan Rajendran
  • Ramesh Karri


As the manufacturing time, quality, and cost associated with additive manufacturing (AM) continue to improve, more and more businesses and consumers are adopting this technology. Some of the key benefits of AM include customizing products, localizing production and reducing logistics. Due to these and numerous other benefits, AM is enabling a globally distributed manufacturing process and supply chain spanning multiple parties, and hence raises concerns about the reliability of the manufactured product. In this work, we first present a brief overview of the potential risks that exist in the cyber-physical environment of additive manufacturing. We then evaluate the risks posed by two different classes of modifications to the AM process which are representative of the challenges that are unique to AM. The risks posed are examined through mechanical testing of objects with altered printing orientation and fine internal defects. Finite element analysis and ultrasonic inspection are also used to demonstrate the potential for decreased performance and for evading detection. The results highlight several scenarios, intentional or unintentional, that can affect the product quality and pose security challenges for the additive manufacturing supply chain.


Finite Element Analysis Tool Path Additive Manufacturing Selective Laser Melting Selective Laser Sinter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank Fei Chen and Dr. Khalid Shahin for assistance with this work. The NYU-TSE Vice Dean for Research, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship, Dr. Kurt Becker, is thanked for providing an institutional fellowship to Fei Chen to contribute to this project. The authors acknowledge the Global Research Initiative Grant from NYU Abu Dhabi to Drs. Gupta and Shahin. Useful discussion with Dr. Dirk Lehmhus of IFAM, Germany is acknowledged. Parts of this work are supported by the Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-10-1-0988. The views and conclusions contained in this work are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as presenting the official policies or position, either expressed or implied, of the ONR or the U.S. Government unless so designated by other authorized documents. The proprietary and trade names mentioned are owned by their parent companies. Mention of any machines or products does not imply endorsement by the authors or funding agencies.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Eric Zeltmann
    • 1
  • Nikhil Gupta
    • 1
  • Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos
    • 2
  • Michail Maniatakos
    • 3
    • 6
  • Jeyavijayan Rajendran
    • 4
  • Ramesh Karri
    • 5
    • 7
  1. 1.Composite Materials and Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNew York University Tandon School of EngineeringBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringNew York University Tandon School of EngineeringBrooklynUSA
  3. 3.Engineering DivisionNew York University Abu DhabiAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates
  4. 4.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Texas at DallasRichardsonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNew York University Tandon School of EngineeringBrooklynUSA
  6. 6.NYU Center for CybersecurityNew York University Abu DhabiAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates
  7. 7.NYU Center for CybersecurityNew York University Tandon School of EngineeringBrooklynUSA

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