, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp 772–777 | Cite as

Texture Evolution During Laser Direct Metal Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V

  • Niyanth Sridharan
  • Anil Chaudhary
  • Peeyush Nandwana
  • Sudarsanam Suresh Babu


Titanium alloys are used in a wide variety of high-performance applications and hence the processing of titanium and the resulting microstructures after additive manufacturing has received significant attention. During additive manufacturing, the processing route involves the transition from a liquid to solid state. The addition of successive layers results in a complex microstructure due to solid-state transformations. The current study focuses on understanding the phase transformations and relate them to the transformation texture in Ti-6Al-4V to identify conditions leading to a strong alpha transformation texture. The as-deposited builds were characterized using optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction. The results showed columnar prior β grains with a martensitic structure after the deposition of a single layer. On subsequent depositions, the martensitic microstructure decomposed to a colony and basketweave microstructure with a stronger transformation texture. The alpha texture with a colony and basketweave microstructure showed a stronger transformation texture as a result of variant selection. Thus, by controlling the cooling rate of the build from the β transus, it is possible to control the alpha transformation texture.



The authors would like to thank the US Navy Small Business Innovation Research program for financial support. This Research was sponsored the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. This research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s High Temperature Materials Laboratory was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program.


  1. 1.
    I. Lonardelli, N. Gey, H.-R. Wenk, M. Humbert, S.C. Vogel, and L. Lutterotti, Acta Mater. 55, 5718 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.T. Makiewicz, Masters Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2013.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.M. Kelly, Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.A. Kobryn, and S.L. Semiatin, in Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings, vol. 6, Austin, 2001.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.W. Prabhu, Masters Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2014.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.R. Bache, W.J. Evans, B. Suddell, and F.R.M. Herrouin, Int. J. Fatigue 23, 153 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Baufeld, O. Van der Biest, and S. Dillien, Metall. Trans. A 41A, 1917 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Bhattacharyya, G.B. Viswanathan, R. Denkenberger, D. Furrer, and H.L. Fraser, Acta Mater. 51, 4679 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.C. Obasi, S. Birosca, J.Q. da Fonseca, and M. Preuss, Acta Mater. 60, 1048 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Beladi, Q. Chao, and G.S. Rohrer, Acta Mater. 80, 478 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.C. Wang, M. Aindow, and M.J. Starink, Acta Mater. 51, 2485 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Lee, R. Banerjee, S. Kar, D. Bhattacharyya, and H.L. Fraser, Philos. Mag. 87, 3615 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.C. Obasi, R.J. Moat, D.G. Leo Prakash, W. Kockelmann, J.Q. da Fonseca, and M. Preuss, Acta Mater. 60, 7169 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.S. Al-Bermani, M.L. Blackmore, W. Zhang, and I. Todd, Metall. Trans. A 41A, 3422 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.A. Antonysamy, P.B. Prangnell, and J. Meyer, Mater. Sci. Forum 706, 205 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Bontha, N.W. Klingbeil, P.A. Kobryn, and H.L. Fraser, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 178, 135 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G.C. Obasi, D.G. Leo Prakash, J.Q. da Fonseca, and M. Preuss, Acta Mater. 60, 6013 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Thijs, F. Verhaeghe, T. Craeghs, J. Van Humbeeck, and J.P. Kruth, Acta Mater. 58, 3303 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. Randle and O. Engler, Introduction to Texture Analysis: Macrotexture, Microtexture and Orientation Mapping (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Stanford and P.S. Bate, Acta Mater. 52, 5215 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Simonelli, Y.Y. Tse, and C. Tuck, Metall. Trans. A 45A, 2863 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (outside the U.S.) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niyanth Sridharan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Anil Chaudhary
    • 2
  • Peeyush Nandwana
    • 3
  • Sudarsanam Suresh Babu
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical EngineeringThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.Applied OptimizationDaytonUSA
  3. 3.Manufacturing Demonstration FacilityOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations