, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp 985–999 | Cite as

Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

  • Joseph T. McKeown
  • Kai Zweiacker
  • Can Liu
  • Daniel R. Coughlin
  • Amy J. Clarke
  • J. Kevin Baldwin
  • John W. Gibbs
  • John D. Roehling
  • Seth D. Imhoff
  • Paul J. Gibbs
  • Damien Tourret
  • Jörg M. K. Wiezorek
  • Geoffrey H. Campbell


Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology in both research and industrial environments, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. The observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, and presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.



This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. Activities and personnel at LLNL were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering under FWP SCW0974. Activities and personnel at the University of Pittsburgh received support from the National Science Foundation, Division of Materials Research, Metals & Metallic Nanostructures program through Grant No. DMR 1105757. Work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Activities and personnel at LANL were supported by AJC’s Early Career Award from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering. DTEM sample preparation at LANL was performed at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph T. McKeown
    • 1
  • Kai Zweiacker
    • 2
  • Can Liu
    • 2
  • Daniel R. Coughlin
    • 3
  • Amy J. Clarke
    • 3
  • J. Kevin Baldwin
    • 4
  • John W. Gibbs
    • 3
  • John D. Roehling
    • 1
  • Seth D. Imhoff
    • 3
  • Paul J. Gibbs
    • 3
  • Damien Tourret
    • 3
  • Jörg M. K. Wiezorek
    • 2
  • Geoffrey H. Campbell
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Science DivisionLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials ScienceUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Materials Science and Technology DivisionLos Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  4. 4.Center for Integrated NanotechnologiesLos Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

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