Additive Manufacturing of Reactive In Situ Zr Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites
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Reactive in situ multi-material additive manufacturing of ZrB2-based ultra-high-temperature ceramics in a Zr metal matrix was demonstrated using LENS™. Sound metallurgical bonding was achieved between the Zr metal and Zr-BN composites with Ti6Al4V substrate. Though the feedstock Zr power had α phase, LENS™ processing of the Zr powder and Zr-BN premix powder mixture led to the formation of some β phase of Zr. Microstructure of the Zr-BN composite showed primary grains of zirconium diboride phase in zirconium metal matrix. The presence of ZrB2 ceramic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness of pure Zr was measured as 280 ± 12 HV and, by increasing the BN content in the feedstock, the hardness was found to increase. In Zr-5%BN composite, the hardness was 421 ± 10 HV and the same for Zr-10%BN composite was 562 ± 10 HV. It is envisioned that such multi-materials additive manufacturing will enable products in the future that cannot be manufactured using traditional approaches particularly in the areas of high-temperature metal–ceramic composites with compositional and functional gradation.
The authors acknowledge financial support from the Joint Center for Aerospace Technological Innovation (JCATI), WA, and the National Science Foundation under the Grant Number CMMI 1538851. Authors also acknowledge the financial support from W. M. Keck Foundation and M. J. Murdock Charitable Trust towards establishing the Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory at WSU. Authors would like to thank Dr. Thomas Williams, School of Geological Sciences of the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID) for help with XRD. The authors would also like to acknowledge experimental support from Ryan Harrison.
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