, Volume 66, Issue 11, pp 2360–2366 | Cite as

Employing Considerations of Criticality in Product Design

  • T. E. Graedel
  • Philip Nuss


With no agreed-on definition of critical materials, product and process designers have been unable to systematically address the critical materials issue. Using a comprehensive methodology, we have determined the criticality of 62 metals and metalloids—approximately two-thirds of the periodic table. We illustrate how the analyses were performed, provide an overview of criticality at the global level for all elements, and then present examples of how the criticality information could be used in making material-related choices in product and process design.


Antimony Rhenium Cadmium Telluride Environmental Implication Critical Material 
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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Industrial Ecology, School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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