Physical, chemical and antimicrobial characterization of copper-bearing material
- 177 Downloads
Arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, silver, and zinc are elements with strong antimicrobial properties. Among them, copper is more environmentally friendly and has both good antibacterial and antifungal properties. It has been shown that copper can even be effective against new viruses such as avian influenza (H5N1). Development of copper-bearing materials for various applications, therefore, is receiving increased attention. The Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan was the largest native copper mining regions of North America at the turn of the 20th century. Copper was extracted by mining the copper-rich basaltic rock, and steamdriven stamp mills were used to process a great volume of low-grade ores, resulting in huge amounts of crushed waste ore called stamp sands. Approximately 500 million tons of stamp sand were discarded. This material is investigated in this study as an example for the development of antimicrobial materials.
KeywordsKaolin Basaltic Rock Metallic Copper Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometer Cuprite
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Foodborne Illness” (accessed 10 August 2010), www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/foodborneinfections_g.htm.
- 3.L. Curtis, A. Lieberman, M. Stark, W. Rea, and M. Vetter, Nexus, 13(4) (2006), pp. 19–23.Google Scholar
- 4.N. Inoue, “Polymers with Good Safety and Retention of Antibacterial Properties, and Products using Them,” Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho, JP 2005053973 (3 March 2005).Google Scholar
- 5.H.D. Kusumaningrum, M.M. van Putten, F.M. Rombouts, and R.R. Beumer, J. Food Protection, 65(1) (2002), pp. 61–65.Google Scholar
- 6.X. Wang, X. Qiao, J. Chen, H. Wang, and S. Di, J. Ceramics, 24(4) (2003), pp. 239–244.Google Scholar
- 7.H. Koschitzky. “Algae-resistant Roofing Material and Methods,” U.S. patent 7,323,237 (2008).Google Scholar
- 8.N. Wang, B. Li, H. Li, and J. Feng, J. China Universities, 6(2) (2000), pp. 306–309.Google Scholar
- 10.Gustavo Faúndez, Miriam Troncoso, Paola Navarrete, and Guillermo Figueroa, BMC Microbiology (electronic edition), 4 (2004), doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-4-18.Google Scholar
- 14.B. Li, J.Y. Hwang, X. Huang, Z. Xu, and S. Yu, EPD Congress 2003, ed. M.E. Schlesinger (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 2003), pp. 29–36.Google Scholar
- 15.Copper Applications Technology Roadmap (New York: International Copper Association, Ltd., 2007), p. 20.Google Scholar
- 16.Lesktech LLC, Project final report to U.S. EPA (EPA Contract Number: AP-D-07-034), “Minerals Recovery of Copper Mine Tailings on Lake Superior Coastline for Use as Raw Material in the Manufacture of Roofing Shingles” (August 2007).Google Scholar
- 17.F. Peng, S.W. Effler, D. O’Donnell, A.D. Weidemann, and M.T. Auer, Limnology and Oceanography, 54(4) (2009), pp. 1369–1381.Google Scholar
- 19.“Standard Test Method for Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”) and Voids in Aggregate,” ASTM C29/C29M-97 (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2003).Google Scholar
- 20.T.D. Brock et al., Biology of Microorganisms (7th ed.) (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994), pp. 524–530, 561–562.Google Scholar
- 21.“A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home,” EPA 402-K-02-003 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation, 2002).Google Scholar
- 22.“Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymeric Materials to Fungi,” ASTM G21-96 (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2002).Google Scholar
- 24.C.L. Fichtel, The Engineering & Mining Journal, 97(2) (1913), pp. 61–62.Google Scholar
- 25.Mineralogical Society of America. Collector’s corner. Virtual Field Trip to the Keweenaw peninsula, Michigan, www.minsocam.org/MSA/collectors_corner/vft/mi1.htm.
- 28.R.A.T. Gould, R.L. Everman, J.C. Keister, and K.K. Reynolds, “Copper Containing Algeicidal Compounds,” U.S. patent application 20,100,098,777 (22 April 2010).Google Scholar