Advertisement

JOM

, Volume 58, Issue 5, pp 30–33 | Cite as

Understanding the copper of the Statue of Liberty

  • Jean-Marie Welter
Overview Archaeotechnology

Abstract

Pierre-Eugène Secrétan, a French copper industrialist, donated the copper sheets for the construction of the skin of the Statue of Liberty when it was built in 1875–1876. It can be inferred from the history of Secrétan's activities that the sheets were rolled in his plant of Sérifontaine. The impurities found in two samples obtained from the U.S. National Park Service show that different qualities of copper were used. They indicate, by taking also into account the commercial relations of Secrétan, that the copper may possibly have come from Spanish or South/North American ore.

Keywords

Rolling Mill Copper Sheet Copper Producer Cuivre Commercial Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Goodway, “Materials Choices for the Statue of Liberty,” The Statue of Liberty Restoration, ed. R. Baboian, E.L. Bellante, and E.B. Cliver (Houston, TX: NACE International, 1990), pp. 37–42.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Belot and D. Bermond, Bartholdi (Paris, France, Perrin, 2004), p. 336.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The paper is a summary of a talk given at MS&T'05 in Pittsburgh, 25–28 September 2005; an extended version will be published later.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Moreno, The Statue of Liberty Encyclopedia (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), pp. 200–201.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Roche, private communication (10 February 2006); and www.terraz.org/liberty/. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Ratzel, “Un aventurier des temps industriels: Pierre Eugène Secrétan, 1836–1899,” Cahiers d'Histoire de l'Aluminium, 22 (Summer 1998), pp. 37–48.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Altmayer and L. Guilet, Métallurgie du Cuivre et Alliages de Cuivre (Paris, France: Baillière et Fils, 1925), p. 18.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Avery, Not on Queen Victoria's Birthday (London: Collins, 1974), pp. 154–156.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C.K. Hyde, Copper for America (Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press, 1998), pp. 60–61.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.P. Franey et al., The Origin of the Copper Used for the Statue of Liberty”. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, 20 (2) (1986), pp. 105–109.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Juve, Geological Survey of Norway, private communication (4 December 2002).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Marie Welter

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations