Quantitative Parametrization of Mixture Distribution in GDI Engines: A CFD Analysis

  • S. Krishna Addepalli
  • J. M. Mallikarjuna
Original Paper


This paper presents an objective classification of mixture distribution in the combustion chamber of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine into homogeneous and non-homogeneous types. The non-homogeneous mixture distribution is further classified as properly stratified, improperly stratified and mal-distributed types. Based on this classification, four types of properly stratified mixture distributions viz., random, linear, Gaussian and parabolic are virtually simulated in the combustion chamber of a GDI engine using computational fluid dynamics to identify the mixture that results in maximum indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). It is found that the IMEP is highest for the parabolic mixture distribution which is followed by Gaussian, linear and random types. The performance and emission characteristics of the virtual mixture distributions are compared with a late fuel injection case at different over all equivalence ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.7. Then the variation of mixture equivalence ratio with the distance from the spark plug is parametrized for different virtual mixture distribution cases and expressed using a parameter called the “stratification index”. It is found that the stratification index based on Gaussian variation gives maximum information about the mixture distribution in the combustion chamber. Finally the stratification index of different virtual mixture distributions is compared with the late fuel injection case at various overall equivalence ratios. It is found that the late fuel injection case tends to produce highest IMEP when the stratification index is close to unity.



Bottom dead center


Crank angle degree


Computational fluid dynamics


Courant Fredrich and Lewis


Direct injection spark ignition


Equivalence ratio


Exhaust valve closing


Exhaust valve opening


Gasoline direct injection


Hydro carbons


Internal combustion


Indicated mean effective pressure


Intake valve closing


Intake valve opening


Kelvin Helmholtz–Rayleigh–Taylor


Nitric oxides


Port fuel injection


Pressure implicit with the splitting of operators


Renormalized group


Stratification index


Successive over relaxation


Top dead center


Turbulent kinetic energy



Authors would like to acknowledge the support of Mr. Phaninder Injeti, Convergent Science who helped to develop the python script for different calculations used in this study. Authors also acknowledge the high-performance computing facility at Indian Institute of Technology Madras, which was used to perform numerical simulations.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Internal Combustion Engine Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology, MadrasChennaiIndia

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