Application of methyl jasmonate to grey willow (Salix cinerea) attracts insectivorous birds in nature
It has been suggested that insectivorous birds may be guided by herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to herbivore-rich trees with herbivorous damage. The HIPV production in plants is partly mediated by jasmonic acid signalling pathway. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was proved to be a suitable agent for induction of HIPVs similar to those induced by herbivorous insects in many plant species. We studied the effects of methyl jasmonate on volatile emission and natural enemy attraction using mature grey willow (Salix cinerea) under natural conditions in Czech Republic. We treated 12 experimental shrubs with 30 mM MeJA and completed the experiment with 12 control shrubs. We monitored attacks by natural predators with artificial plasticine caterpillars which were checked daily. Birds most often pecked the caterpillars exposed on MeJA-treated shrubs and this attractiveness differed significantly from control. Attractiveness of MeJA-treated shrubs did not differ significantly from control shrubs for arthropod predators. Spraying MeJA on grey willows resulted in significantly higher production of α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene and β-ocimene. There was a marginally significant positive correlation between the predation rate by birds and relative change in α-pinene emissions.
Keywordsα-Pinene β-Ocimene Herbivory Herbivore-induced volatile compounds Olfaction Predation Volatile organic compounds
This study was funded by The Czech Science Foundation project No. 14-32024P. We are thankful to our colleagues Legi Sam and Philip Butterill for English edits.
- Dicke M (2015) Herbivore-induced plant volatiles as a rich source of information for arthropod predators: fundamental and applied aspects. J Indian Inst Sci 95:35–42Google Scholar
- Roslin T, Hardwick B, Novotny V, Andrew N, Asmus A, Barrio IC, Basset Y, Boesing AL, Bonebrake T, Cameron E, Dáttilo W, Donosov D, Gray C, Hik DS, Hill S, Hopkins T, Huang S, Koane B, Laird-Hopkins B, Laukkanen L, Lewis O, Mwesige I, Nakamura A, Nell CS, Petry WK, Prokurat A, Sam K, Schmidt NM, Slade A, Slade V, Suchankova A, van Nouhuis S, Vandvik D, Weissflog A, Zhukovich V, Slade E (2017) Higher predation risk for insect prey at lower latitudes. Science 356:742–744CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Team RC (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computingGoogle Scholar