Advertisement

Arthropod-Plant Interactions

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 403–410 | Cite as

Generalist and sticky plant specialist predators suppress herbivores on a sticky plant

Original Paper

Abstract

Glandular trichomes are conventionally viewed as a type of direct defense against herbivores that carry indirect costs associated with the exclusion of numerous predators. We tested the hypothesis that predators are ineffective on sticky plants using a predator that is adapted to sticky plants, the harpactorine assassin bug Pselliopus spinicollis Champion, and a common surrogate generalist predator in analogous studies, the coccinellid Hippodamia convergens Guerin. We tested their top–down effects on herbivores using sticky and non-sticky races of common madia plants (Asteraceae: Madia elegans) and their native herbivores, a noctuid moth (Noctuiidae: Heliothodes diminutiva Hodges) and an aphid (Aphididae: Uroleucon madia Swain). We report that both predators were effective at reducing herbivore abundances on sticky and non-sticky plants, with greater efficacy on sticky plants.

Keywords

Enemy-free space Glandular trichomes Indirect defense Natural enemies Sticky plant specialist Tritrophic 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Clara LaPeyre, George Zaragoza, Ashley Adams, and Lindsey Hack for assistance in the field and laboratory, Virginia Boucher and Stebbins Cold Canyon UC Reserve for access to natural tarweed and arthropod populations, Jay Rosenheim, Louie Yang, and Rick Karban for helpful comments on the manuscript, an anonymous reviewer for careful and thoughtful comments that improved the manuscript, and Briggs Hall Janitorial staff for letting us use the courtyard for the experiment. This project was supported by a Robert van den Bosch Scholarship for Biological Control to BAK.

References

  1. Carlquist S, Baldwin BG, Carr GD (2003) Tarweeds and silverswords: evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae). Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, p 293Google Scholar
  2. Choe D, Ruse MK (2006) Use of plant resin by a bee assassin bug, Apiomerus flaviventris (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Ann Entomol Soc AmGoogle Scholar
  3. Clausen J (1951) Stages in the evolution of plant species. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  4. Davidson NA, Kinsey MG, Ehler LE, Frankie GW (1992) Tobacco budworm, pest of petunias, can be managed with Bt. Calif Agric 46(4):7–9Google Scholar
  5. De Clercq P, Mogaghegh J, Tirry L (2000) Effect of host plant on the functional response of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Biol Control 18:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duke SO (1994) Glandular trichomes—a focal point of chemical and structural interactions. Int J Plant Sci 155(6):617–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eisner T, Eisner M, Hoebeke E (1998) When defense backfires: detrimental effect of a plant’s protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:4410–4414CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Feeny P (1976) Plant apparency and chemical defense. Biochem Interact Plants Insects 10:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Finke DL, Denno RF (2002) Intraguild predation diminished in complex-structured vegetation: implications for prey suppression. Ecology 83:643–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gassmann A, Hare D (2005) Indirect cost of a defensive trait: variation in trichome type affects the natural enemies of herbivorous insects on Datura wrightii. Oecologia 144:62–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Glas JJ, Schimmel BCJ, Alba JM, Escobar-Bravo R, Schuurink RC, Kant MR (2012) Plant glandular trichomes as targets for breeding or engineering of resistance to herbivores. Int J Mol Sci 13:17077–17103CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Jeffries MJ, Lawton JH (1983) Enemy free space and the structure of ecological communities. Biol J Lin Soc 23:269–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krimmel BA (2014) Why plant trichomes might be better than we think for predatory arthropods. Pest Manag Sci. doi: 10.1002/ps.3812 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Krimmel BA, Pearse IS (2013) Sticky plant traps insects to enhance indirect defense. Ecol Lett 16(2):219–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Krips OE, Kleijn PW, Willems PEL, Gols GJZ, Dicke M (1999) Leaf hairs influence searching efficiency and predation rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Exp Appl Acarol 23:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Levin D (1973) Role of trichomes in plant defense. Q Rev Biol 48:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
  18. Readio PA (1927) Studies on the biology of the Reduviidae of America north of Mexico. Kansas Univ Sci Bull 17:1–291Google Scholar
  19. Riddick EW, Simmons AM (2014) Do plant trichomes cause more harm than good to predatory insects? Pest Manag Sci. doi: 10.1002/ps.3772 Google Scholar
  20. Romero GQ, Souza JC, Vasconcellos-Neto JC (2008) Anti-herbivore protection by mutualistic spiders and the role of plant glandular trichomes. Ecology 89:3105–3115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schmidt RA (2014) Leaf structures affect predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and biological control: a review. Exp Appl Acarol 62:1–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Southwood R (1986) Plant surfaces and insects—an overview. In: Juniper B, Southwood R (eds) Insects and the plant surface. Edward Arnold, Melbourne, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  23. Styrsky JD, Kaplan I, Eubanks MD (2006) Plant trichomes indirectly enhance tritrophic interactions involving a generalist predator, the red imported fire ant. Biol Cont 36:275–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sugiura S, Yamazaki K (2006) Consequences of scavenging behaviour in a plant bug associated with a glandular plant. Biol J Linn Soc 88:593–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Voigt D, Gorb S (2008) An insect trap as habitat: cohesion-failure mechanism prevents adhesion of Pameridea roridulae bugs to the sticky surface of the plant Roridula gorgonias. J Exp Biol 211:2647–2657CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Voigt D, Gorb S (2010) Locomotion in a sticky terrain. Arthropod Plant Interact 4:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Voigt D, Gorb E, Gorb S (2007) Plant surface–bug interactions: Dicyphus errans stalking along trichomes. Arthropod Plant Interact 1:221–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Weirauch C (1998) Raubwanzen (Reduviidae, Heteroptera, Insecta) im Waldschutzgebiet Pró-Mata (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasilien. Diplomarbeit (MSc thesis equivalent), Universität Tübingen, Germany, pp 121Google Scholar
  29. Weirauch C (2006) Observations on the sticky trap predator Zelus luridus Stal (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae), with the description of a novel gland associated with the female genitalia. Landesmuseen Neue Serie 50:1169–1180Google Scholar
  30. Wheeler AG (2001) Biology of the plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): pests, predators, opportunists. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  31. Wheeler AG, Henry TJ (1981) Jalysus spinosus and J. wickhami: taxonomic clarification, review of host plants and distribution, and keys to adults and 5th instars. Ann Ent Soc Am 74:606–615Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of California, DavisDavisUSA
  2. 2.Illinois Natural History SurveyChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations