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Analysen epigenetischer Marker aus Liquid Biopsies: Informationen von jenseits des Genoms

Analyses of epigenetic markers in liquid biopsies: information from beyond the genome

Zusammenfassung

Die Analyse epigenetischer Marker aus Liquid Biopsies erlaubt Einblicke in physiologische und pathologische Prozesse im Körper einer Person, die über die reine Sequenzinformation hinausgehen. Insbesondere das DNA-Methylierungsmuster sowie die Expressionsmuster von mRNA und ncRNA sind aus Liquid Biopsies erfassbar. Damit werden ganze Gruppen neuer potenzieller Biomarker einer nicht invasiven und ökonomischen Diagnostik zugänglich. Darüber hinaus und im Gegensatz zur reinen DNA-Sequenzanalyse von Liquid Biopsies erlaubt die hohe Gewebespezifität epigenetischer Marker auch die Bestimmung der Herkunft der analysierten Nukleinsäuren z. B. in Bezug auf ein betroffenes Organ. Angesichts der fallenden Kosten für Sequenzierungen und des technologischen Fortschritts, der die Nachweisgrenzen immer weiter zu immer sensitiveren Anwendungen verschiebt, könnten epigenetische Untersuchungen aus Liquid Biopsies den Trend zu einer Individualisierung in der Medizin weiter forcieren.

Abstract

Analysis of epigenetic markers from liquid biopsies provides insights into physiological and pathological processes in the body of a person far beyond the pure sequence information. In particular, the DNA methylation pattern and the expression patterns of mRNA and ncRNA are accessible from liquid biopsies. Therefore, a whole group of new potential biomarkers will come into reach for non-invasive and economic diagnostics. Furthermore, and in contrast to the pure DNA sequence analysis from liquid biopsies, the high tissue specificity of several epigenetic markers allows the origin of the nucleic acids analyzed, e. g. with regard to the affected organ, to be determined. In view of the falling costs of sequencing and the technological progress that continues to push the detection limits to even more sensitive application, epigenetic analyses from liquid biopsies could further enforce the trend toward precision medicine.

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Funding

Eigene Untersuchungen der Autoren zu epigenetischen Biomarkern für Erkrankungen werden gefördert aus Mitteln des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung, Fördernummern 82DZL001A5 und 82DZL00105 (Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research, DZL), 01KU1502A (RESET-AID) und 01KU1505G (ICGC-DE-Mining) sowie der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (AM343/2-3).

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Correspondence to Ole Ammerpohl.

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O. Ammerpohl, S. Scheufele und R. Siebert geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Ammerpohl, O., Scheufele, S. & Siebert, R. Analysen epigenetischer Marker aus Liquid Biopsies: Informationen von jenseits des Genoms. medgen 28, 251–258 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11825-016-0093-3

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Liquid Biopsy
  • DNA-Methylierung
  • ncRNA
  • cfDNA
  • epigenetische Marker

Keywords

  • Liquid biopsy
  • DNA methylation
  • ncRNA
  • cfDNA
  • epigenetic marker