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LIFESTYLE und erblicher Brustkrebs

Welche nicht-genetischen Faktoren beeinflussen das Erkrankungsrisiko?

Lifestyle and hereditary breast cancer

Which non-genetic factors influence the risk of disease?

Zusammenfassung

Nicht für alle Trägerinnen einer Mutation in den Genen BRCA1 und BRCA2 liegt das lebenslange Erkrankungsrisiko für Brust- oder Eierstockkrebs gleich hoch. Bislang werden jedoch bei der Indikationsstellung zur Teilnahme am intensivierten Früherkennungs- und Nachsorgeprogramm oder zur Durchführung einer prophylaktischen Operation keine risikomodifizierenden Faktoren berücksichtigt. Für das sporadische Mammakarzinom sind zahlreiche direkt und indirekt veränderbare nicht-genetische Einflussfaktoren bekannt. Studien lassen vermuten, dass Lebensstilfaktoren auch das Risiko der BRCA-assoziierten Tumoren modulieren. Die Erforschung der genetischen und nicht-genetischen Faktoren und ihrer Interaktion untereinander führt zur Erstellung eines umfassenden Vorhersagemodells. Dieses hat zum einen die Vermeidung von Übertherapie im Hinblick auf präventive Maßnahmen zum Ziel. Zum anderen bereitet die Kenntnis der individuellen Trigger einer potenziellen Brust- oder Eierstockkrebserkrankung den Weg für eine gezieltere Prävention von der medikamentösen Therapie bis hin zur Lebensstilintervention.

Abstract

Lifelong risk of breast cancer differs among carriers of mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Cancer risk is modulated by a multitude of genetic and non-genetic factors. So far, no risk modifiers for the decision regarding intensified surveillance or prophylactic mastectomy have been taken into account. In sporadic breast cancer, several directly and indirectly changeable non-genetic risk factors are known. Studies suggest that lifestyle factors and reproduction history also modify the breast cancer risk for BRCA carriers. Ongoing research into modifying risk factors and their interactions is aimed at the creation of a more differentiated risk prediction model to prevent women from overtreatment with regard to prevention strategies. Additionally, knowledge of the individual key mechanisms of potential breast or ovarian cancer may lead to targeted medical prevention or lifestyle intervention.

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Correspondence to Karin Kast.

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K. Kast, N. Ditsch, M. Kiechle geben an, dass keine Interessenkonflikte vorliegen.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Kast, K., Ditsch, N. & Kiechle, M. LIFESTYLE und erblicher Brustkrebs. medgen 27, 237–243 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11825-015-0044-4

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Schlüsselwörter

  • BRCA1
  • BRCA2
  • Erkrankungsrisiko
  • Lebensstil
  • Vorhersagemodell

Keywords

  • BRCA1
  • BRCA2
  • Cancer risk
  • Lifestyle
  • Predictive model