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Werner-Syndrom

Eine prototypische Form der segmentalen Progerie

Werner syndrome

A prototypical form of segmental progeria

Zusammenfassung

Das Werner-Syndrom ist eine segmental progeroide Erkrankung mit Beginn in der Adoleszenz oder im frühen Erwachsenenalter. Typische Symptome, die zum vorgealterten Phänotyp beitragen, sind ein postpubertär auftretender Kleinwuchs, Katarakte, eine vorzeitige Ergrauung/Ausdünnung des Haupthaars, sklerodermieähnliche Hautveränderungen und eine regionale Atrophie des subkutanen Fettgewebes. Darüber hinaus kommt es früh und gehäuft zu „Alterserkrankungen“ wie z. B. einem Diabetes mellitus Typ 2, einer Osteoporose, einer Atherosklerose sowie verschiedenen malignen Tumoren. Das Werner-Syndrom wird autosomal-rezessiv vererbt und ist durch Mutationen im Werner-Gen (WRN) bedingt. Es wurden bis heute mehr als 70 über das gesamte Gen verteilte Mutationen identifiziert, die typischerweise zu einem Verlust der Genfunktion führen. WRN kodiert für eine RecQ-Typ-Helikase, die u. a. an der DNA-Reparatur und der Aufrechterhaltung der DNA-Integrität beteiligt ist, was sich in einer erhöhten genetischen Instabilität in Patientenzellen widerspiegelt. Trotz der relativen Seltenheit ist die Analyse des Werner-Syndroms von allgemeiner Bedeutung, um die Rolle der DNA-Stabilität und Integrität für das Altern sowie die Entwicklung altersassoziierter Erkrankungen besser zu verstehen.

Abstract

Werner syndrome is a segmental progeroid disorder with onset in adolescence or early adulthood. Typical symptoms contributing to patients’ prematurely aged appearance include postpubertal development of short stature, cataracts, premature greying/thinning of scalp hair, scleroderma-like skin changes and regional atrophy of subcutaneous fat tissue. In addition, an increased rate and early onset of typical age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, and various malignancies is observed. Werner syndrome is autosomal recessively inherited and caused by mutations in the Werner gene (WRN). To date, more than 70 WRN mutations have been identified. These are spread over the entire gene and typically represent loss of function mutations. WRN encodes a RecQ type helicase involved in DNA repair and the maintenance of DNA integrity, which is reflected by an increased genetic instability in patient cells. Despite the relative rarity of Werner syndrome, its analysis provides important general insights into the roles of DNA stability and integrity for the ageing process and the development of age-associated diseases.

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Correspondence to C. Kubisch.

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Lessel, D., Oshima, J. & Kubisch, C. Werner-Syndrom. medgen 24, 262–267 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11825-012-0360-x

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Werner-Syndrom
  • Progerie
  • RecQ-Helikase
  • DNA-Reparatur
  • Genomische Instabilität

Keywords

  • Werner syndrome
  • Progeria
  • RecQ helicase
  • DNA repair
  • Genomic instability