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Genetik der Nikotinabhängigkeit

Genetics of nicotine dependence

Zusammenfassung

Die körperliche Abhängigkeit von Nikotin ist eine genetisch bedingte Suchtkrankheit, die es den Betroffenen erschwert, mit dem Rauchen aufzuhören. Sie ist dadurch für die meisten mit dem Rauchen verbundenen Erkrankungen (mit)verantwortlich ist. In mehreren unabhängigen Studien wurde eine allelische Assoziation zwischen Nikotinabhängigkeit und DNA-Varianten einer Region auf Chromosom 15, die das Gencluster für die α5-, α3- und β4-Untereinheiten des Nikotinrezeptors beinhaltet, gefunden. Bemerkenswerterweise wurde auch eine Assoziation von Markern der gleichen Region mit Lungenkrebs und der Gruppe der chronisch-obstruktiven Atemwegserkrankungen detektiert. Dies unterstreicht, wie wichtig das Wissen um die genetischen Ursachen der Nikotinabhängigkeit für das Verständnis von Erkrankungen ist, die durch Rauchen verursacht werden.

Abstract

Nicotine dependence is a heritable disorder predictive of difficulty with smoking cessation and carries most of the morbidity associated with smoking. Several independent studies have shown an allelic association between nicotine dependence and DNA variants in the region of the α5-α3-β4 nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15. Interestingly, the same region has been associated with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This highlights the importance of understanding the genetics of nicotine dependence in the context of smoking-related illness.

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Correspondence to S. Hartz.

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Titel der Originalarbeit: „The genetics of nicotine dependence“. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Dr. rer. nat. S. Heidemann

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Hartz, S., Bierut, L. Genetik der Nikotinabhängigkeit. medgen 22, 5–9 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11825-010-0207-2

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Nikotinabhängigkeit
  • Genomweite Assoziationsstudie
  • Rezeptoren
  • Humangenetik
  • Lungenkrebs

Keywords

  • Nicotine dependence
  • Genome-wide association study
  • Receptors
  • Human genetics
  • Lung neoplasms