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Mechanismen und Auswirkungen natürlicher Selektion

Mechanisms and effects of natural selection

Zusammenfassung

Natürliche Selektion bezeichnet das Phänomen der genotypabhängigen Reproduktivität. Selektion stellt somit einen evolutionären Mechanismus dar, bei dem die Variabilität funktioneller Regionen im Genom einer Spezies durch Wechselwirkungen einzelner Organismen mit ihrer Umwelt geprägt wird. Die Weitergabe genetischer Varianten von einer Generation an die nächste kann durch natürliche Selektion begünstigt (positive Selektion), erschwert (negative Selektion) oder, in Abhängigkeit davon, ob eine Mutation rein- oder mischerbig vorliegt, begünstigt oder erschwert (balancierende Selektion) werden. Positive und negative Selektion verringern die Diversität funktioneller Bereiche und damit assoziierter Abschnitte des Genoms, balancierende Selektion erhöht diese. Das Studium natürlicher Selektion dient hauptsächlich dem evolutionären Verständnis, es kann jedoch auch medizinisch relevante Informationen liefern.

Abstract

Natural selection refers to the phenomenon of genotype-dependent reproduction rates. Selection therefore constitutes an evolutionary process by which the diversity of functional genomic regions is shaped via interactions between single organisms and their environment. The rate at which genetic variants are passed on to the next generation can be modified via natural selection in a positive (positive selection), negative (negative selection), or, depending on whether a mutation exists in the heterozygote or homozygote state, positive-or-negative (balancing selection) way. Both positive and negative selection decrease the diversity of functional and function-associated regions of the genome, whereas balancing selection increases such diversity. Studying natural selection is not only important for improving our evolutionary understanding but can also yield information relevant for human health.

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Danksagung

Wir danken Michael Krawczak für wertvolle Hinweise zum Manuskript.

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Correspondence to M. Kayser.

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Lao, O., Kayser, M. Mechanismen und Auswirkungen natürlicher Selektion. medgen 20, 308–314 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11825-008-0122-y

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Evolution
  • Selektion
  • Genotypabhängige Reproduktivität
  • Humanevolution
  • „Selective sweep“

Keywords

  • Evolution
  • Selection
  • Genotype-dependent reproduction rates
  • Human evolution
  • Selective sweep