Self-efficacy and sleep problems

A pilot study comparing sleep-disordered and healthy school-age children

Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung und Schlafprobleme

Pilotstudie zum Vergleich von schlafgestörten und gesunden Kindern im Grundschulalter

Abstract

The present pilot study investigates the relationship between general self-efficacy (GSE) and sleep behavior in school-age children (between 5 and 10 years). Children with chronic insomnia (n = 54) had significantly lower GSE scores (p < 0.001) compared to a sample of healthy school-age children (n = 54) matched concerning age (M = 7.5 years) and gender (59.3 % boys, 40.7 % girls). In general, higher sleep disturbance scores were associated with lower GSE (r s = −0.37, p < 0.001). The highest negative correlations with GSE were found for frequent night wakings (r s = −0.38, p < 0.001), sleep anxiety (r s = −0.35, p < 0.001), and sleep onset delay (r s = −0.30, p < 0.01). In a multiple stepwise regression model, frequency of night wakings (ß = −0.33, p < 0.01) and sleep onset delay (ß = −0.26, p < 0.01) predicted GSE scores of children; sleep parameters accounted for 20 % of the variance in GSE scores. All in all, the present findings provide evidence for an association between GSE and sleep behavior, which are in line with previous results in other age groups and concerning other psychological constructs, e. g., depression and anxiety. Future studies should further investigate this topic in order to improve effective intervention programs for children.

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Pilotstudie untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen der allgemeinen Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung (SWE) und dem Schlafverhalten bei Kindern im Grundschulalter (zwischen 5 und 10 Jahren). Kinder mit chronischer Insomnie (n = 54) zeigten im Vergleich zu einer hinsichtlich Alter (M = 7,5 Jahre) und Geschlechtsverteilung (59,3 % Jungen, 40,7 % Mädchen) übereinstimmenden Gruppe von gesunden Grundschulkindern (n = 54) signifikant geringere SWE-Werte (p < 0,001). Höhere Schlafstörungswerte gingen mit einer geringeren SWE einher (r s = −0,37; p < 0,001). Die stärksten negativen Korrelationen mit der SWE zeigten sich für häufiges nächtliches Erwachen (r s = −0,38; p < 0,001), schlafbezogene Ängste (r s = −0,35, p < 0,001) und Einschlafverzögerungen (r s = −0,30; p < 0,01). In einem multiplen schrittweisen Regressionsmodell ließen sich die SWE-Werte der Kinder aus der Häufigkeit nächtlichen Erwachens (β = −0,33; p < 0,01) und dem Ausmaß an Einschlafverzögerungen (β = −0,26; p < 0,01) vorhersagen. Die Schlafparameter klärten dabei 20 % der Varianz der SWE-Werte auf. Die vorliegenden Ergebnisse stimmen mit bisherigen Befunden für andere Altersgruppen und andere psychologische Konstrukte (z. B. Depressionen und Ängste) überein und deuten insgesamt auf einen Zusammenhang zwischen der SWE und dem Schlafverhalten hin. Weiterführende Studien sollten diesen Zusammenhang näher untersuchen, nicht zuletzt, um effektive Interventionsprogramme für Kinder zu verbessern.

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Correspondence to Isabel Bihlmaier.

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I. Bihlmaier and A.A. Schlarb declare that they have no competing interests.

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Bihlmaier, I., Schlarb, A.A. Self-efficacy and sleep problems. Somnologie 20, 275–280 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11818-016-0085-1

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Keywords

  • General self-efficacy
  • Chronic insomnia
  • School-age children
  • Projections and predictions
  • Coping behavior

Schlüsselwörter

  • Allgemeine Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung
  • Chronische Insomnie
  • Grundschulkinder
  • Prognose und Vorhersage
  • Bewältigungsverhalten