Waste paper sludge as a potential biomass for bio-ethanol production
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This review describes the utilization of paper sludge (PS), which is waste from the pulp and paper industry. Its advantages make PS the cellulosic biomass with the most potential for bio-refinery research and applicable for industrial scale. Some of the grain based biofuels and chemicals have already been in commercial operation, including fuel ethanol or biochemical products. Unfortunately, research and application of PS are yet in their infancy and suffer from large scale because of low productivity. Reviewing the many researches that are working at the utilization of PS for bio-refineries could encourage the utilization of PS from laboratory research to be applied in industry. For this reason, PS usage as industrial raw material will be effective in solving the environmental problems caused by PS with clean technology. In addition, its conversion to bio-ethanol could offer an alternative solution to the energy crisis from fossil fuel. Two methods of PS utilization as raw material for bio-ethanol production are introduced. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase produced by A. cellulolyticus and thermotolerant S. cerevisiae TJ14 gave ethanol yield 0.208 (g ethanol/g PS organic material) or 0.051 (g ethanol/g PS). One pot bioethanol production as a modified consolidated biomass processing (CBP) technology gave ethanol yield 0.19 (g ethanol/g Solka floc) and is considered to be the practical CBP technology for its minimizing process.
Key wordsPaper Sludge Cellulase Bio-refinery SSF Acremonium cellulolyticus Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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