Journal of Marine Science and Application

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 159–165 | Cite as

Optimization of bottom-hinged flap-type wave energy converter for a specific wave rose

  • Hamed Behzad
  • Roozbeh Panahi


In this paper, we conducted a numerical analysis on the bottom-hinged flap-type Wave Energy Convertor (WEC). The basic model, implemented through the study using ANSYS-AQWA, has been validated by a three-dimensional physical model of a pitching vertical cylinder. Then, a systematic parametric assessment has been performed on stiffness, damping, and WEC direction against an incoming wave rose, resulting in an optimized flap-type WEC for a specific spot in the Persian Gulf. Here, stiffness is tuned to have a near-resonance condition considering the wave rose, while damping is modified to capture the highest energy for each device direction. Moreover, such sets of specifications have been checked at different directions to present the best combination of stiffness, damping, and device heading. It has been shown that for a real condition, including different wave heights, periods, and directions, it is very important to implement the methodology introduced here to guarantee device performance.


wave energy converter bottom-hinged flap power take-off system directional analysis optimization wave rose 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amiri A, Panahi R, Radfar S, 2016. Parametric study of two-body floating-point wave absorber. Journal of Marine Science and Application, 15(1), 41–49. DOI: 10.1007/s11804-016-1342-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ANSYS AQWA Brochure, 2015, Available from Scholar
  3. Bacelli G, Genest R, Ringwood JV, 2015. Nonlinear control of flap-type wave energy converter with a non-ideal power take-off system. Annual Reviews in Control, 40, 116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Caska AJ, Finnigan TD, 2008. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a cylindrical bottom-pivoted wave energy absorber. Ocean Engineering, 35(1), 6–16. DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2007.06.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Flocard F, Finnigan TD, 2010. Laboratory experiments on the power capture of pitching vertical cylinders in waves. Ocean Engineering, 37(11), 989–997. DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2010.03.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Folley M, Whittaker TJT, Henry A, 2007. The effect of water depth on the performance of a small surging wave energy converter. Ocean Engineering, 34(8), 1265–1274. DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2006.05.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gharangian R, Shafieefar M, Panahi R, 2015. Unidirectional wave spectrum models for Chabahar bay. 16th Marine Industries Conference, Tehran.Google Scholar
  8. Gunawardane SP, Kankanamge CJ, Watabe T, 2016. Study on the performance of the “pendulor” wave energy converter in an array configuration. Energies, 9(4), 282–308. DOI: 10.3390/en9040282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kamkar D, Bhattacharjee J, Guedes Soares C, 2013. Scattering of gravity waves by multiple surface-piercing floating membrane. Applied Ocean Research, 39, 40–52. DOI: 10.1016/j.apor.2012.10.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kurniawan A, Moan T, 2012. Characteristics of a pitching wave absorber with rotatable flap. Energy Procedia. 20, 134–147. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2012.03.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Michailides C, Luan C, Gao Z, Moan T, 2014. Effect of flap type wave energy convertors on the response of a semi-submersible wind turbine in operational conditions. Proceedings of the ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, San Francisco, OMAE2014-24065.Google Scholar
  12. Pezzutto P, 2016. Extension of 2D second-order irregular waves generation equations to non-continuous wavemaker shapes. Coastal Engineering, 116, 207–219. DOI: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2016.06.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Renzi E, Abdolali A, Bellotti G, Dias F, 2014. Wave-power absorption from a finite array of oscillating wave surge converters. Renewable Energy, 63, 55–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2013.08.046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Renzi E, Dias F, 2013. Hydrodynamics of the oscillating wave surge converter in the open ocean. European Journal of Mechanics-B/Fluids, 41, 1–10. DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechflu.2013.01.007MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Renzi E, Dias, F, 2015a. Mathematical modelling of a flap-type wave energy converter. 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Nantes, OMAE2013-10215.Google Scholar
  16. Renzi E, Dias F, 2015b. Relations for a periodic array of flap-type wave energy converters. Applied Ocean Research, 39, 31–39. DOI: 10.1016/j.apor.2012.09.002Google Scholar
  17. Schmitt P, Asmuth H, Elsäßer B, 2016. Optimizing power take-off of an oscillating wave surge converter using high fidelity numerical simulations. International Journal of Marine Energy, 16, 196–208. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijome.2016.07.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tomey-Bozo N, Murphy J, Lewis T, Troch P, Thomas G, 2016. Flap type wave energy converter modelling into a time-dependent mild-slope equation model. Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Renewable energies Offshore, Lisbon, 277–284.Google Scholar
  19. Wei Y, Rafiee A, Henry A, Dias F, 2015. Wave interaction with an oscillating wave surge converter, Part I: Viscous effects. Ocean Engineering, 104, 185–203. DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.05.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wei Y, Rafiee A, Henry A, Dias F, 2016. Wave interaction with an oscillating wave surge converter, Part II: slamming. Ocean Engineering, 113, 319–334. DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.12.041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Whittaker T, Folley M, 2010. Optimisation of wave power devices towards economic wave power systems. Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress, Aberdeen.Google Scholar
  22. Wolgamot HA, Fitzgerald CJ, 2015. Nonlinear hydrodynamic and real fluid effects on wave energy converters. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A Journal of Power and Energy, 229(7), 772–794. DOI: 10.1177/0957650915570351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xiros NI, Dhanak MR, 2016. Ocean Wave Energy Conversion Concepts. In: Xiros NI, Dhanak MR (Eds.). Springer Handbook of Ocean Engineering. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1117–1146.Google Scholar
  24. Yeylaghi S, Moa B, Oshkai P, Buckham B, Crawford C, 2016. ISPH modelling of an oscillating wave surge converter using an OpenMP-based parallel approach. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy, 2(3), 301–312. DOI: 10.1007/s40722-016-0053-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhao H, Sun ZL, Hao CL, Shen JF, 2013. Numerical modeling on hydrodynamic performance of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter. China Ocean Engineering, 27(1), 73–86. DOI: 10.1007/s13344-013-0007-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Harbin Engineering University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations